topleft
topright

Main Menu

Home
Assessment Guidelines
Organizational Politics
Public Politics
Classroom Politics
Psychological Types
Psychological Type and U. S. Political Party Affiliation Print E-mail

Do your psychological type preferences relate to your political party affiliation? Your political ideology? This article suggests that psychological type preferences indeed do influence both of these political orientations.

 

 

Introduction

 

Does your psychological type influence your political orienation and party affiliation? We think so, but research on the topic is almost non-existent. One attempt to explore the question can be found at personalitypage.com. Unfortunately, the results presented there categorize responses for each MBTI type into Democrat, Republican, Liberal, Conservative, Other, and so on. Thus, party affiliation (Democrat, Republican, etc.) is included as a category separate from political ideology (liberal, conservative, moderate, etc.). Given that party affiliation and ideology tend to be strongly correlated, this separation makes it difficult to explore the influence of type preferences on affiliation and ideology together.

 

Probably the best source of information is provided by responses collected when Consulting Psychologists' Press revised the MBTI in 1998. The revision process involved a representative national sample of more than 3000 people in the United States. One of the questions asked concerned party affiliation.

 

Results from the survey are shown in the type table below. Take a moment to study the table and see if you can find any patterns.

 

Table 1: Psychological Type Preferences and Political Party Affiliation

 

ISTJ
Dem  
30%
Rep  
42%
Ind  
28%
ISFJ
Dem  
34%
Rep  
36%
Ind  
30%
INFJ
Dem  
49%
Rep  
22%
Ind  
29%
INTJ
Dem  
19%
Rep  
40%
Ind  
41%
ISTP
Dem  
28%
Rep  
38%
Ind  
34%
ISFP
Dem  
33%
Rep  
26%
Ind  
41%
INFP
Dem  
38%
Rep  
22%
Ind  
40%
INTP
Dem  
17%
Rep  
34%
Ind  
49%
ESTP
Dem  
27%
Rep  
35%
Ind  
37%
ESFP
Dem  
39%
Rep  
31%
Ind  
31%
ENFP
Dem  
34%
Rep  
31%
Ind  
34%
ENTP
Dem  
26%
Rep  
28%
Ind  
45%
ESTJ
Dem  
32%
Rep  
46%
Ind  
22%
ESFJ
Dem  
33%
Rep  
37%
Ind  
30%
ENFJ
Dem  
35%
Rep  
35%
Ind  
30%
ENTJ
Dem  
26%
Rep  
40%
Ind  
34%

This table was adapted from 3 different slides presented in: Peter B. Myers and Katherine D. Myers, Snapshots of the 16 Types. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Copyright 2001.

 

One of the first things you might have noticed is that the distribution for party affiliation is fairly equal for many of the types, particularly for the ENFPs and ENFJs. In comparison to this pattern for the ENFs, however, the INFJ pattern shows a clear inclination for this type to report an affiliation for Democrat (49%) and away from Republican (22%). The mirror to this pattern can be seen in the responses of the ESTJs, who show a fairly clear preference for Republican (46%), although a respectable 32% of ESTJs indicate an affiliation with Democrats. Just as interesting, however, is the comparison of the INTs with the INFs in terms of Democratic vs Republican affiliation. So, one question that arises is "why do INFs differ from these Thinking types in terms of Democratic vs. Republican affiliation?" We'll present one possible answer below.

 

Another interesting pattern concerns the NTPs: ENTP and INTP. These two types appear inclined to declare a stronger affiliation with Independent than do most other types (49% and 45%, respectively). These results are mirrored by the results for the SJs and particularly the STJs. As can be seen, the STJs (ISTJ and ESTJ) report the lowest levels of affiliation with the Independent label (28% and 22%, respectively). Thus, another question that arises is "why do STJs differ from NTPs in party affiliation?".

 

Finally, at look at the four corners of the type table (the "hard edges") shows the TJs clearly affiliate with the Republican Party more so than most of the other types. As can be seen, at least 40% of each of the four TJ types (ESTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ, INTJ) indicate a Republican affiliation. Our third question thus is "why do TJs tend to affiliate with Republican?".

 


Context

 

Before answering these three questions, it might be helpful to provide some context regarding political affiliation and ideological self identification.

 

To start, let's look at trends in how people identify themselves with respect to ideology: liberal, moderate, and conservative. The graph below shows results from the biennial survey conducted by the American National Election Studies (ANES) at the University of Michigan. Participants in the survey are asked to indicate their liberal-conservative orientation using seven categories: extremely liberal, liberal, slightly liberal, moderate or middle of the road, slightly conservative, conservative, and extremely conservative. Participants may also indicate they "don't know". For the table below, all liberal responses are combined and all conservative responses are combined.

 

The results indicate at least four interesting trends. First, the percent of participants who self-identify as "liberal" has remained fairly constant, ranging from about 15% to 20%. (Recently, the percent has edged above 20%.) Second, the well-reported trend towards a more conservative orientation in the U.S. is evident in the increased number of self-identified conservatives. Approximately 30-35% of each sample have reported a conservative orientation since the mid-1980s. Third, the percent of moderates has remained consistently in the 25% neighborhood from about 1984. Finally, the percent responding "don't know" has been decreasing since 1990 from a high of 33% to a low of 20% in 2004.

  

 

 

 

 

Next, let's look at the relationship between party identification and ideological orientation. As mentioned in the introduction, these two factors tend to be significantly related. This relationship can be seen in the next table (below). The results for Republican Party affiliation strongly show the influence of a conservative political identity with about 75% of Republicans indicating some degree of conservative leaning. Similarly, Democratic Party affiliation tends toward a liberal orientation with 40-45% of Democrats indicating some degree of liberal leaning. Clearly, however, the association between party affiliation and ideological orientation is stronger for Republicans. Finally, Independents tend to mirror the national norms (especially for 2004) with Independents divided amongst ideological orientations in the following proportions: liberal (25%), moderate (45%) and conservative (30%).

 

 

 

 

 

Liberal? Conservative? Moderate? Psychological Type?

 

The chart above shows the significant relationship between ideology and party affiliation (and the relationship is statistically significant). But, what does it mean to be conservative or liberal?

 

Probably the most studied indicator of liberal-conservative orientation has been issue opinions related to social and economic issues as well as opinions about the role of government in society. For example, in terms of social issues, conservatives tend to be pro-life, against gay-marriage, and for the death penalty. Liberals, on the other hand, tend to be pro-choice, tolerant of gay-marriage, and against the death penalty. (Note: Some polls indicate these patterns are not always consistent.)

 

Although such positions on issue opinions help define liberal or conservative orientation, there are more fundamental factors that appear to underly such opinions. Our position is that these more fundamental factors can be expressed as differences in psychological type preferences.

 

Sensing-Intuition. Sensing and intuition are the only psychological type preferences that show any consistent relationship to political ideology (in the few studies of which we are aware). In particular, clearer preferences for Sensing associate with conservative leanings whereas clearer preferences for Intuition associate with a more liberal orientation.

 

Consider the characteristics of Sensing and Intuition types. Sensing types routinely are characterized as practical, realistic, and concerned with the here-and-now. They trust experience and facts. On the other hand, Intuiting types are characterized as imaginative, abstract, and concerned with the future. They trust hunches and possibilities.

 

Now consider this definition of conservatism from David Horowitz "...conservatism [is] an attitude about the lessons of the actual past. By contrast, the attention of progressives [is] directed toward an imagined future." Also, consider these definitions from the Merriam-Webster On-line Dictionary for Conservative and Liberal:

 

Conservative: "... tending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or institutions: TRADITIONAL."

 

Liberal: "...not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or traditional forms."

 

 

Comparing these different perspectives clearly suggests the conservative's respect for the proven institutions and practices of the "actual past" seem quite similar to the Sensing type's respect for experience and tradition. The conservative's desire for constructive and incremental change--Edmund Burke's notion of organic change--seems similar to the Sensing type's desire for change that clearly has been established from the facts of the situation and tradition. On the other hand, the liberal's preference for envisioning a new future is quite consistent with the Intuiting type's preference for imagination and creativity. The liberal's inherent need to not be bound by tradition is the Intuiting type's preference for change and possibility.

 

This perspective seems futher supported when we look at the critiques conservatives and liberals sometimes employ when discussing the other's psychology. For example, the following conservative critique of "leftism's" psychology clearly seems to involve S-N conflict about change:

 

The central proposal here may seem at first paradoxical but it is that attitude to the status quo characterizes Leftists rather than Rightists. It is proposed that it is not Rightists who are in favour of the status quo. They are in fact indifferent to it and may equally favour it or oppose it according to circumstances. Leftists, on the other hand, characteristically RESENT the status quo -- at least in the modern democracies. Whatever else the Leftist may be, the bedrock of Leftism is a strong dislike or even a hatred of the way the world is. They have a strong desire or even a need for political change, often extreme change.

 

 

The ideas expressed here, we suggest, reflect a clear example of S-N differences (and particularly SJ vs. NP differences) with respect to change. Those individuals with a preference for Intuiting indeed do have "a strong desire or even a need for" change. Does this need for change extrapolate to the political world?  We think so. Consider the author's further comments about "Rightists":

 

The Rightist, by contrast, generally has no need either for change or its converse. If anything, Rightists favour progress -- both material and social. So most Rightists are conservatives (cautious) not because of their attitude to change per se. On some occasions they may even agree with the particular policy outcomes that the Leftist claims to desire. They resist change, then, mainly when it appears incautious.

 

 

As those who have worked with psychological type and organizational change will tell you, these sentiments look very much like the Sensing type's attitude toward change in organizational life.  As the author notes, Rightists (or Sensing types) are not against change--if the change is incremental, pragmatic, "sensible." 

 

The foregoing critique is, of course, just that: a critique. As such, the opposite political orientation (type preference) is portrayed in a somewhat less than flattering light.  One of the contributions that psychological type knowledge can make in the study of politics--at least in our opinion--is to reframe what often seems as life-and-death political differences as typological differences that might be understood. For example, what might we gain if the Leftist (Intuiting type's) preference for change, variety, and the pursuit of possibilities is understood as just that rather than a "resentment" of the status quo?   

 

On another note,one interesting possibility is that the Sensing-Intuition dichotomy is involved significantly in current politics to the extent that S-N preferences relate differently to religious politics. Is it possible that the "culture wars" that are so prevalent in the press reflect the S-N differences played out in religious differences? Consider some of the following results from studies relating psychological type preferences to a variety of religious factors:



A sample of 315 adult churchgoers completed an index of conservative Christian belief together with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the MBTI. Christians who prefer sensing and thinking are more inclined to hold traditional beliefs than Christians who prefer intuition and feeling.

A sample of 315 adult church-goers completed the MBTI questionnaire assessment of psychological type together with an index of Christian agnosticism. The data demonstrate that Christians who prefer intuition rather than sensing are more tolerant of religious uncertainty. 

 

These results support more than 20 years of research suggesting that the S-N preferences play a significant role in one's religious affiliations--much as they appear to do with respect to political affiliations.  That is, Sensing preferences tend to be associated with more conservative religious beliefs and practices whereas Intuiting preferences tend to be associated with more liberal religious beliefs and practices.

 

 

Thinking-Feeling. Read the following seemingly disparate quotes and see if you find a theme:

 

"Any man who is under 30, and is not a liberal, has no heart; and any man who is over 30, and is not a conservative, has no brains." - Sir Winston Churchill

 

"Conservatives saw the savagery of 9/11 in the attacks and prepared for war; liberals saw the savagery of the 9/11 attacks and wanted to prepare indictments and offer therapy and understanding for our attackers." - Karl Rove

 

 

From a psychological type perspective, both quotes seem to comment on type preferences for Thinking and Feeling. For example, Thinking types often are stereotyped as making decisions with their "head" and Feeling types are stereotyped as making decisions with their "heart". Consider the common characteristics of the Thinking type: rational, logical, impersonal, critical, analytical. Now consider the common characteristics of the Feeling type: personal, relationships oriented, seeks harmony, sympathetic.

 

Rove's comments, of course, represent partisan Republican comments targeted to a Republican audience and thus his statements about liberals is framed for his purposes. However, such framing is not unusal to the world of psychological type and tends to reflect "type bias" or the tendency to characterize the opposite preference in a less than flattering light. Regardless of intention, Rove's comments imply conservatives manifest Thinking characteristics in that they have made the rational, logical, critical ("tough") decision and have "prepared for war." Also by implication, liberals are characterized as providing therapy and understanding--both characteristics arguably being characteristics of a Feeling preference (and thus, stereotypically characterized as "soft").

 

painting of familyBeyond type bias, the dynamics of sex-role stereotyping further camouflage the potential Thinking orientation of conservatives and the potential Feeling orientation of liberals. For example, CNBC commentator Chris Matthews' characterization of the Republican Party as the "daddy" party and the Democratic party as the "mommy" party illustrates this point. Along the same lines, University of California, Berkeley linguistics professor George Lakoff has provided an academic treatment of the topic that frames political ideology within the metaphor of the family. Within Lakoff's model conservatives envision the ideal government as one which is similar to conservative parenting practices referred to by Lakoff as the "strict father" model. In contrast, liberals envision the ideal government as one which is similar to liberal parenting practices termed "nuturing parent" by Lakoff. Recent empirical research  provides some support for Lakoff's ideas. For example, the editor of American Journal of Political Science noted about a recent article :

 

In “Competing Visions of Parental Roles and Ideological Constraint,” David C. Barker and James D. Tinnick III provide an intriguing account of how family values shape political behavior and constrain attitudes across issue areas. Using data from the 2000 American National Election Study, Barker and Tinnick find support for the idea that “nurturant” visions of parental roles engender egalitarian and humanitarian political values, while “disciplinarian” visions of proper parenting are associated with political individualism and traditionalism. Here, then, is a stimulating perspective on the red/blue “culture war” that in recent years has captivated the media and the popular imagination.

 

 

Here are some of Lakoff's descriptions of the "strict father model" that suggest a Thinking preference, particularly in terms of the impersonal, and ciritical approach to making judgements:

 

In addition to support and protection, the father's primary duty is tell his children what is right and wrong, punish them when they do wrong, and to bring them up to be self-disciplined and self-reliant. Through self-denial, the children can build strength against internal evils. In this way, he teaches his children to be self-disciplined, industrious, polite, trustworthy, and respectful of authority.

 

The strict father is restrained in showing affection and emotion overtly...

 

Life is seen as fundamentally difficult and the world as fundamentally dangerous.

 

 

Compare the above characteristics with Lakoff's description of the "nuturing parent model" that suggest a Feeling preference, particularly in terms of the more personal and sympathetic approach to making decisions:

 

The primal experience behind this model is one of being cared for and cared about, having one's desires for loving interactions met, living as happily as possible, and deriving meaning from one's community and from caring for and about others.

 

Children are taught self-discipline in the service of nurturance: to take care of themselves, to deal with existing hardships, to be responsible to others...

 

Through empathizing and interacting positively with their children, parents develop close bonds with children and teach them empathy and responsibility towards others and toward society.

 

 

Clearly the above descriptions imply a "masculine" vs. "feminine" framing. However, the possibility that sex-role stereotypes might obscure a relationship between T-F preferences and political ideology will not come as a surprise to anyone familiar with the history and construction of the MBTI. In particular, the T-F index on the MBTI is the only index that consistently has been scored using separate scoring weights for Males and Females (although the most recent Form M version does not). As might be expected, males historically have been more likely to indicate a preference for Thinking whereas females have been more likely to indicate a preference for Feeling.

 

(Note: The video at the end of this article shows a presentation by Dr. Lakoff wherein he discusses his ideas in more depth. The video runs for approximately 50 minutes.)

 

Judging-Perceiving. The last letter in your "type formula" is a J or a P (e.g., ESFJ, ISTP). This last letter indicates how you prefer to deal with the outer world. More specifically, this last letter indicates which of your preferred mental functions you typically use in the outer world.

 

If you prefer Judging (i.e., you are a J type), then you use either T or F in the outer world, depending upon your mental functions preference. For example, an INTJ uses T in the outer world. An INFJ uses F in the outer world. Thinking and Feeling thus are mental functions of Judging.

 

If you prefer Perceiving (i.e., you are a P type), then you use either S or N in the outer world, depending upon your mental functions preference. For eample, an INTP uses N in the outer world. An ISTP uses S in the outer world. Sensing and Intuiting thus are mental functions of Perceiving.

 

Because Js use a decision-making function (T or F) in the outer world, they prefer to have things decided, settled, and so on. Because Ps use a perceiving function (S or N) in the outer world, they prefer that things be more flexible, spontaneous, and dynamic.

 

Take a look at the pictures below. Which drawer is yours? If you are a "J" you probably prefer that your outer world be organized, planned, scheduled, ordered, somewhat predictable and so on--like the drawer on the left. If you are a "P" you probably prefer that your outer world be creatively chaotic, emergent, boundryless, and so on--like the drawer on the right.

 

 

Judging
Perceiving

 

 

Understanding which mental function a person uses in the outer world helps understand how that person prefers to exist in, and interact with, that outer world. Moreover, given that politics is usually considered as something that exists in the outer world, understanding J or P preferences should be helpful in understanding someone's orientation to politics.

 

Our hypothesis is that Js tend to me more conservative and Ps tend to be more liberal. Consider, e.g., the following quotes taken from Russell Kirk's presentation on conservative principles:

 

First, the conservative believes that there exists an enduring moral order....This word order signifies harmony. There are two aspects or types of order: the inner order of the soul, and the outer order of the commonwealth.

 

Second, the conservative adheres to custom, convention, and continuity....Conservatives are champions of custom, convention, and continuity because they prefer the devil they know to the devil they don’t know.

 

Fourth, conservatives are guided by their principle of prudence....Any public measure ought to be judged by its probable long-run consequences, not merely by temporary advantage or popularity. Liberals and radicals, the conservative says, are imprudent: for they dash at their objectives without giving much heed to the risk of new abuses worse than the evils they hope to sweep away.

 

 

This sampling of Kirk's words suggests J characteristics and preferences as seen in the emphasis on order, continuity, planning and so on. Moreover, the statement about liberals "dashing without...heed" might be restated in "P" language as being spontaneous.

 

The constrast in Judging and Perceiving orientations between conservatives and liberals may be evident when "Law and Order" issues are considered. In this situation, conservatives display their J tendencies when they emphasize the "Rule of Law," mandatory sentencing laws, limited appeals and so on in that these practices emphasize having things decided in a standard manner. On the other hand, liberals reflect their P tendencies when they seek judicial discretion in sentencing, extended appeals and other actions that keep the judicial process flexible and open to information to more fully inform decisions.

 

 

Conservative S, T, J vs. Liberal N, F, P?

 

The above discussion briefly suggests that conservatives may tend to prefer S, T, and J compared with liberals who may tend to prefer N, F, and P. How do these suggestions help us answer our original questions about type and party affiliation?

 

STJ vs NTP. First, let's consider the contrast between NTPs and STJs. As noted above, NTPs seem to affiliate with an Independent party identification whereas STJs tend to affiliate more with a Republican party identification. Morevover the STJs are more likely to be Democrat than Independent whereas the NTPs tend to be slightly more Republican than Democrat.

 

ISTJ





INTP



ENTP
ESTJ


The STJ affiliation with the Republican party seems reasonable given that about 75% of Republicans self-identify as conservative and S, T, and J preferences clearly imply conservative traits: order, practicality, custom, tradition, stability and so on. But, why would STJs identify more with Democrats than Independents? We believe the SJ orientation to tradition and custom influences the STJs to choose a traditional party over something somewhat undefined such as "Independent". Though independence may be a trait that conservatives admire when it comes to liberty, freedom, small government and self-reliance, we propose the SJ orientation to tradition--and thus traditional political institutions--influences this type's choice to express their political identity within the traditional two-party system.

 

Before looking at the NTP's Independent affiliation, let's look at something Isabell Myers & Mary McCaulley wrote about the SJ types and the NP types in the 1985 version of the MBTI Manual :

 

SJs seek order in their environment. They are organized, dependable, and conservative. They tend to solve problems by reliance on past experiences, and they dislike ambiguity.

 

NPs constantly seek the challenge of the new. They adapt to new possibilities as they arise. The are unconventional, independent spirits who hate to be fenced in.

 

 

In contrast to the conservative, traditional, SJ is the uncoventional and independent NP. Keep in mind our discussion above about J and P; in the case of the NP type, they prefer to experience and interact with the outer world with their Inuition. Thus, the NP attempts to enact in the outer world all manner of creative, changing possibilities. What is preferred is the new and original (and progressive?), not the conventional--and quite possibly not even the traditional, conventional two-party identification.

 

But, what about the results in out third table above which combines liberal-conservative orientation with party identification? Don't these results show that liberals and conservatives are about equally represented amongst those who self-identified as Independent in the ANES data? How can the NPs be our more liberal, non-traditionalist Independent when an almost equal number of conservative (and thus SJ types) also identify as Indepedent?

 

One possibility is that it is not SJ conservatives who self-identify as Independents; instead, the combination of Sensing and Perceiving preferences (SP types) may be the conservative Independent. The preference for Sensing again implies a trust in what is practical, realistic, and pragmatic. However, when combined with the preference for a Perceiving orientation to the outer world, we obtain a Sensing type who is likely to be more open to risking new things--to being a little more unconventional--than their SJ cousins.

 

One of the more interesting treatments of SJ and SP types in the political arena is provided by Dr. David Keirsey in his work on Presidential Temperament. Although there are distinct differences between Psychological Type theory and Temperament theory, there are those who have worked to combine the insights from both models. Consider, for example, Dr. Linda Berens' perspective on the 4 temperaments:

 

As David Keirsey developed his theory of the four temperaments, he began to display them to show the aspects the four temperaments have in common. As Linda Berens expanded on his work, she began to consistently display the Idealist (the types with N and F in their type codes) and the Guardian (those with S and J in their codes) on the top of the matrix to show that these two temperaments have in common a social attitude—they tend to take more affiliative roles and focus on interdependence. The Rational temperament (with N and T in their codes) and the Artisan (with S and P in their codes) are on the bottom of the matrix to show that they have in common a more pragmatic, do-what-it-takes attitude that focuses on autonomy and independence.

 

 

The relevant comparison here is between the "autonomy and independence" of the SP Artisan with the SJ Guardian's "focus on interdependence." (For an interesting "mapping" of the four temperaments onto the Nolan chart, see here.)

 

TJ Republicans. Our second observation about the Consulting Psychologists Press data is that the TJ types appear to indentify themselves with a Republican party affiliation more so than do the other types. As can be seen in the type table presented here, the TJ preferences include the four types found in the corners of the traditional type table.

 

ISTJ

INTJ

ISFP INFP

ESFP ENFP
ESTJ

ENTJ

These four corners often are referred to as the "hard edges" of the type table. This nickname results from the fact that each of these four types uses the Thinking function in the outer world. Thus, these types tend to engage the outer world in such a way as to plan, organize, and control events in a "hard" way via the impersonal, critical, task-focused Thinking function. In contrast to the "hard edges" types are the four types in the center of the type table. These four FP types all use the Feeling function in the inner world and are referred to as the "soft center" of the type table.

 

The TJ types also are referred to as the "executive types" and are described in the 1985 MBTI Manual as "...tough-minded, executive, analytical, and instrumental leaders." To the extent that the Republican party is the party of business, then these results make some sense. Numerous studies of managerial populations suggest a clear preference for TJ amongst these individuals. The TJ types also share numerous characteristics with the "strict father" parenting role discussed earlier, especially if we equate managerial style with parenting style. STJs in particular tend to prefer organizations that are conservatively designed with a clear emphasis on a chain of command, clear roles and responsibilities, discipline and so on.

 

But, what are we to do with the fact that we now have placed N preferences (ENTJ, INTJ) in the mostly conservative Republican category when earlier we noted that N preferences have been shown to relate to a more liberal political ideology? Three factors might help us understand this tendency. First, we need to keep in mind that there are different kinds of political conservatives, and that social and religous conservatives may be different from the business conservatives. Thus, it is possible that social conservatism may arise more from the SJ combination and business conservatism may arise more from the TJ combination.  Second, the NTJs' liberal tendencies may be moderated by the fact that the NTJs use their Intuiting function in the inner world. Third, the results from the ANES studies discussed above indicate about 5 to 10% of Republicans do self-identify as liberal and it may be the NTJs who contribute to this group.

 

INF Democrats. Our third observation about the data in Table 1 is that 49% of INFJs indicated an affiliation with Democrat. The INFPs are similar in that 38% of INFPs report an affiliation with Democrat. Moreover, both INFJs and INFPs report the lowest proportion of affiliation with Republican (22% for each type). These results contrast with the INTJs and INTPs (and TJs) who tend to affiliate with Republican but not Democrat.   

 

The INFs tendency to affiliate with Democrat may be understood, in part, by examining the characteristics associated with their NF mental functions combination. In particular, this combination can be thought of in a shorthand way as N=possibilities and F=for people. The NF types thus frequently are found in occupations which involve helping people to develop in some way. Such occupations include counseling and the clergy. The NFs also are attracted to the arts, humanities, and other occupations which give expression to the human spirit. 

       

When asked to "draw something which represents your ideal organization," NFs tend to present an organization that allows for human growth and development, that is decentralized, that has as a part of its mission to serve the greater good and so on. To the extent that one's preferences in the realm of organization also represent one's preference for a style of governing, then NFs clearly seem to express democracy in the sense of Mary Parker Follett's concept of democracy as self-creating coherence in that organization emerges from the interaction of the people who are involved.  Other NF visions of how to govern can be found in Harrison Owen's work on open-space technology and Peter Senge's work on the Learning Organization. 

 

Consider Senge's charachterization of learning organizations as

 

…organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.

 

Such language--nuture, collective aspiration, seeing the whole together--is the language of possibilities (N) for people (F).  Such language is very different from that of the TJ--and STJ particularly--where ideal government is characterized as efficient, rationale, practical, and so on.

 



INFJ
INTJ


INFP INTP








Comparing NF with ST mental functions presents fairly clear contrasts in that these mental functions groups are opposites. The more intriguing contrast in Table 1 is between the INFs and the INTs. As can be seen in the type table presented here, these types occupy the upper right quadrant of the type table.  The four types share in common preferences for I and N.  As described in the 1985 MBTI Manual, this group is referred to as the "thoughtful innovators" who "are introspective and scholarly. They are interested in knowledge for its own sake, as well as ideas, theory, and depth of understanding.  They are the least practical of the types."

 

Does the term " pointy-headed liberal" come to mind? Such would seem a natural type biased statement about this group.  But, then, what are we to make of the fact that the INTs self identify as Republican (and Independent)? Clearly, the T vs F difference plays out here in that the INFs associate with Democrat and INTs associate with Republican.  Thus, the discussion contrasting T and F preferences presented above may explain the different  party affliations. Another possibility is that NTs see the Democratic Party as incompetent and thus would rather associate with a political self-concept that is Independent rather than incompetent Democrat. We raise this possibility given both the record of the Democratic Party over the past 20 or so years combined with the NT concern with competency. However, such a notion is only a hypothesis at this point.  

 

Personality and Politics in Italy

 

Numerous factors influence one's political identity (parents, e.g.) but we are suggesting that one's normal personality perferences also influence one's politics.  And, given the assumption that Jung's psychological types are universal, then we should expect that the relationships discussed above between MBTI preferences and political orientations should be evident in other cultures. Unfortunately, we are not familiar with any studies relating MBTI preferences to political orientations beyond the few mentioned previously.

 

Fortunately, relevant research has been conducted in Italy by political psychologists. Instead of using the MBTI, however, these researchers used the Italian version of the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality.  The FFM involves five personality factors and is sometimes refered to as as the OCEAN model of personality to reflect the five factors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.  (More about the FFM can be found here.) Of significance for our investigation, research shows four of the FFM factors correlate with MBTI scores: higher scores on Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness correspond to E, N, F, and J scores on the MBTI.

 

Here is the abstract from the Italian study :

 

Abstract: Voters' political choices have presumably come to depend more on their personal preferences and less on their social characteristics in Western democracies. We examine two aspects of personality that may influence political choice, traits and personal values, using the Five Factor Model of personality traits and the Schwartz (1992) theory of basic personal values. Data from 3044 voters for the major coalitions in the Italian national election of 2001 showed that supporters of the two coalitions differed in traits and values, largely as hypothesized. Center-left voters were higher than center-right voters in the traits of friendliness and openness and lower in energy and conscientiousness. 

 

 

Translating the above FFM results into our MBTI framework produces the following:

 

"Center-Left (Liberal) voters were higher than center-right (Conservative) voters in traits of friendliness (Feeling) and openness (Intuition) and lower in energy (Extraversion) and conscientiousness (Judging)." So, similar to our discussion above S, T, and J preferences related to more conservative political orientations whereas N, F, and P preferences related more to liberal political orientations.

 

A more recent study in the U.S. provides similar results:

 

Personality measures of more than 6000 US electors on the Big Five Factors have been collected on the Web through a Web site designed to assess their personality. By means of structural equation modeling the impact of personality factors as well as of demographic variables, such as age and sex, on voting intentions on the forthcoming US presidential elections was investigated. Personality variables accounted for 16% of variance of voting intentions, while gender and age accounted for no more than 3%. High Agreeableness and Openness were predictive of intention to vote for Kerry, while all high Energy, Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability were predictive of intention to vote for Bush. Results are consistent with previous research conducted in a different country, using a different language.

 

 

Once again, the suggestion is that preferences for N and F are associated with intentions to vote for a more liberal candidate (Kerry) whereas E and J preferences are associated with intentions to vote for a more conservative candidate (Bush).  The results for Emotional Stablility (Neuroticism) are not directly comparable with the MBTI Step I framework, but are interesting.

 

Personality and Politics in U.S. College Students

 

More recent research employing the FFM futher supports a relationship between personality and political orientation.  This research focused on college students across five different samples (total N = 19,248) who completed a FFM questionnaire and self-identified their political orientation. Results from these studies stongly supported a relationship between Openness and Liberal self-identification, and moderately supported a relationship between Conscientiousness and Conservative self-identification.  Translated into "type" terms, these results again suggest Liberals tend toward N and P preferences whereas Conservatives tend toward S and J preferences.

 

Limitation 

 

Research shows that how one asks a question influences the answer one gets.  And, this maxim is true for questions related to political party affiliation.  In our case, we have been unable to determine the exact wording used in the 1998 study conducted by Consulting Psychologists Press to determine Party Affiliation.  We have twice requested a copy of the wording used in their survey, but have not received a copy.  Our discussion thus is based on the assumption that the wording is similar to what has been used in the ANES research. That said, if you have a copy of the wording of the question, please feel free to share it!

 

Concluding Comments

 

What we have tried to do here is outline some introductory ideas about how Jung's psychological types might relate to political orientations.  As mentioned, the research in the area is sparse (at least there is little published research).   We thus invite your comments, and will revise this page as ideas develop.


Professor George Lakoff on How Liberals and Conservatives Think

 

Xe-Media Software

 


 

 

 

 

Professor George Lakoff on How Liberals and Conservatives Think:

Short Version of More Recent Views

 

Xe-Media Software

 

To view a longer version of this video, go here.  





Reddit!Del.icio.us!Google!Facebook!Slashdot!Netscape!Technorati!Spurl!Furl!Blogmarks!Yahoo!Ma.gnolia!Squidoo!Free social bookmarking plugins and extensions for Joomla! websites!
Last Updated ( Monday, 22 October 2012 )
 
< Prev




2005-2012 Politicaltypes.com
Joomla Template by Joomlashack
Joomla Templates by JoomlaShack Joomla Templates
buy lukol online no prescription us colchicine dose fmf children bula do remedio prednisona bystolic pills sweat best place buy roxithromycin pct trileptal 100mg cheap buy trazodone online reviews cialis professional pas cher retin-a ge italiano buy viagra 100 mg zetia 20 mg side effects brand cialis drug in usa pharmacy can you take wellbutrin sr daily side effects of going off paxil cr alli medicine wiki canada pharmacy blaine washington the online drugstore micardis what classification of drugs is the antidepressant fluoxetine (prozac) can i make accutane betnovate without prescription miami ethinyl estradiol tablets toradol im injection dose pharmacy technician jobs in northern ireland cardizem in italia cyproheptadine weight gain levitra online pay paypal can prometrium help you get pregnant overnight without buy cozaar purchase cipro low cost paroxetine levitra plus for daily use canada buy aciclovir online uk buy zanaflex online uk no prescription lariam lawsuit canada motrin 800 mg dosage instructions lopid side effects headache cutting bystolic pills half natural alternatives to doxycycline for acne buy retino a cream 0 05 visa ceftin no prescription buy generic tetracycline no prescription don buy lincocin paypal buy medication online no prescription australia pharmacy has best price uroxatral diabecon tablets price can you order claritin d online drug where can i get ciplox no prescription micronase sale pariet package post cycle therapy nymphomax elimite for discount quickest cleocin better pill diflucan mist canada lloyds pharmacy allington kent what types of nymphomax are there seroquel where to purchase where can i get lisinopril from actos plus metformin medication risperdal shop atorlip-5 dose cheap differin uk what is prevacid for donde comprar levitra super active actoplus met mg price calcium carbonate from canada is it safe to order betapace nitrofurantoin mono mac 100mg during pregnancy long time side effects floxin synthroid order in the us zyprexa on line is aspirin better than aleve resources for living walmart aura pharmacy amoxicillin buy canada no prescription for celebrex generic macrobid pregnancy purchase abilify on line in the uk lincocin side effects long term use buy provera mexican pharmacies cheap silagra 100 mg elocom mast upotreba generic minocycline acne western drug shuddha guggulu buy vytorin 15mg online maximum dosage of valtrex per day safe zyrtec buy buy betnovate lotion isoniazid capsules clomid twins pregnancy erexor canada overnight delivery kytril for dogs buy pfizer cytotec for sale where can i buy vpxl anastrozole steroid dosage chloramphenicol over counter australia buy cefixime online il rx buying club buy carafate tablets online metformin next day atarax from china lithium side effects nhs differin gel reviews nexium pharmacy coupons buy anacin from india after sex pill in india non generic antivert buy paroxetine paxil free diovan coupons buy viagra 50mg online can you get protonix elavil antidepressant urispas generic wikipedia drugs legal buy amitriptyline online canada why is there a shortage of lipothin citalopram tablets appearance comprar estrace portugal wo kann ich viagra generika kaufen get codeine cough syrup online valacyclovir hydrochloride drug interactions best drugstore mineral foundation for oily skin generic advair diskus for sale on line flonase mail order india viagra jelly to buy in the usa without a prescription side effects of zolpidem tartrate aldactone generico pre“šo aricept without prescriptions phenergan dosage non prescription geriforte what does asacol trazodone insomnia dependence i want to pay some voltaren absolut berry acai price where to buy lopid ointment purchase generic aspirin micardis 40 mg generic slimming tablets jodie marsh getting apcalis sx in australia buyers of motilium canada maleato de clorfenamina in english mechanism action allopurinol treatment gout buy eriacta uk can order himcolin online what is alliteration in poetry can you get viagra over the counter in spain is viagra sublingual legal in uk best pharmacy to order hydrochlorothiazide meclizine order trimox overnight shipping cheap what is the medicine norvasc used for buy finpecia no prescription fast delivery buy prometrium mg generic cialis cheapest 18v lithium worx gt coupon code can you buy precose in ireland buy cozaar patch ortho tri-cyclen dose aleve express canada is viagra over the counter in australia himplasia no prescription canada buyers of desyrel canada buy cymbalta next day pharmacy technician online course florida lexapro 10 mg tablet used can order glycomet online cheapest place to buy kamagra donde puedo comprar vasotec best site to buy lopid buy levitra singapore tamoxifen order on web betnovate cream price india cheap sarafem pills lincocin prescription coupon zenegra over counter what types of forzest are there online ranitidine purchase acyclovir purchase toprol xl lowest price no prescription diabecon voltaren rx periostat 20 mg price where to buy online drugs in the canada over the counter avalide femara pills buy there any natural alternatives to viagra price increase baclofen can you order valtrex fastest anacin uk delivery what is glucophage side effects order albendazole online uk mexican pharmacy no prescription cialis sublingual what is bactrim ds for adalat medication class is generic pletal effective aleve online coupon code western drug rhinocort tofranil pm vs tofranil legal buy rumalaya gel online canada foods that interfere with coumadin warfarin how to order coreg online donde comprar cialis generico df where to alesse massachusetts stop buy baclofen 80 mg online buy augmentin inhaler canada propecia generique 90 discount order coreg cheap prilosec daily use reviews purchasing sominex online where to get lisinopril cialis lilly preis generic name floxin otic where can i purchase plavix buy over the counter voveran online buy premarin cream online pharmacy what does deltasone kamagra gold generic release date tetracycline equivalent drugs zanaflex pill shop discount code online pharmacy uk betoptic cost of lasix without insurance feldene without a script dosis aciclovir herpes zoster oftalmico acticin not generic can you buy liv 52 over the counter buy chloramphenicol eye drops for dogs vantin online in us how to get prescription drugs without doctor uk online pharmacy modafinil can you get viagra sublingual over the counter best online pharmacy generic diamox licensed pharmacy zoloft risperdal rxlist side effects cialis birth control online us buy cheap tramadol online with mastercard nolvadex tamoximed discount code for sinequan alli cost walmart production cost of lithium ion batteries prednisone next day shipping mentat online prescription assistance for zyprexa allegra d prescription drugs indian aciphex discount where can you buy acai berry pills in canada drugs and their classes uk buy viagra online with echeck purchase acai optimum canada accutane for cheap 40mg pills pharmacy has best price januvia actos without a transcript contains buy arthrotec no prescription overnight ventolin where to get maxalt side effects of paroxetine kroger pharmacy hours lexington ky meclizine pills drugstore canadian drugstore conference how many zyprexa does it take to overdose allopurinol medication information plendil medication coupon use zestril coupon online canadian amoxil prescription suppliers of cyklokapron in us canadian pharmacy cipro buy testosterone cream online advair diskus 250 50 classification how to treat aspirin allergy us online pharmacy no prescription myambutol buying clomid online safe uk liquid xalatan review generic drugs from india company tofranil 100mg cheap januvia metformin together brand levitra over the counter usa ordering serevent diovan drugstore actos online ordering amantadine parkinsons shoppers drug mart canada post hours saskatoon i pill trazodone website pharmacy image search by image is atrovent a prescription drug cialis canadian online levitra plus mist canada can you order pulmicort without asthma buy online elocon generic most reputable online pharmacy plendil shortage cheap kamagra chewable buy online amaryl pill canadian rocaltrol 0.25 mg fluconazole and alcohol consumption can you get doxazosin generic aciclovir buy canada tadalafil brand side effects of dramamine patch azithromycin half life online pharmacy glucotrol xl metoclopramide 10 mg eurax prices carbozyne spain asacol tablets online how to get propranolol valtrex reviews shingles prograf cost without insurance side effects of cephalexin in pregnant women novolog flexpen sliding scale female cialis in canada what is the correct dosage of maxalt brand sale 100mg buy levitra buy requip without a prescription from canadian pharmacy cheap capoten 40 mg no prescription albendazole sale triderm crema usos doxycycline hyclate 20mg uses vardenafil hcl 20mg tamoxifen pharmacy order altace generic trade name cleocin gel tablets uses levitra on line for sale no script fast brand viagra deleviery buy motilium us augmentin with american express diclofenac gel not generic cheap yagara no prescription antivert discounted how to buy keflex in london generic for norvasc buy zestril in singapore buy unisom bulk levlen side effects headache order feldene tablets artane from india etodolac medication guide how to live cheap and save money where is the cheapest place to buy alli sam;s lisinopril discounts codes diltiazem without a script moduretic 25 bula methotrexate and folic acid mechanism levitra dosage maximum cialis sales 2016 increasing synthroid dosage orlistat over the counter in canada beat way to order tinidazole how to use doxycycline for acne alli amsterdam dramamine motion sickness coupons cialis sublingual generic for roxithromycin spain over counter name generic baclofen doxycycline dosage sinusitis benfotiamine roche precio argentina get suprax las vegas risperdal usa cvs prices buy advair diskus online canada drugs order zetia online in usa efeitos colaterais do cloridrato de sertralina 50mg clomid 100mg and metformin indian buy alesse prescription order buy generic cialis canada online mircette women buy order valtrex online uk antibiotics for sinusitis amoxicillin list of sublingual drugs suhagra pills buy tulasi telugu movie online veoh cheap minipress no prescription diageo thalidomide trust cleocin gel ships from india bentyl overnight side effects of female taking viagra nizagara no prescription needed order casodex i pill maxalt website alphagan p drug classification quiero comprar viagra por internet no prescription pharmacy buy innopran xl glucotrol usa sale purchase elavil 100 mg tinidazole dosage lyme flovent dosage pediatric online lynoral india xalatan cost in canada online no prescription uk for atarax beconase aq generic wikipedia drugs proventil hfa side effects buy bupron sr discount where to buy generic prozac renagel delivery uk order female viagra in promethazine dm max dose canadian glucophage cuantas pastillas de cytotec debo tomar para abortar levitra coupon bayer dysfunction online sale of tadalis sx compare prices geriforte syrup floxin ordering online pharmacy rank these organic acids from weakest (1) to strongest (3) how to use cipro ear drops viagra sublingual order in the us zofran injection prescribing information propecia .5mg effective buy silagra visa getting acivir pills in australia yasmin contraceptive pills uk online pharmacy uk brand viagra can you buy cipro online cheapest cephalexin buy paxil in india online current price dostinex medication for treating anxiety in dogs actos pills side effects kamagra and paypal zestril for dogs buy buy epivir-hbv mg online order levothroid 120 mg buy suhagra no prescription viagra online buy cheap accutane side effects long term use do i need a prescription for artane buy finpecia online ciprofloxacin milk products uk version of celebrex how much is uroxatral tablets ranitidine brands in india $50 advair coupon 2012 generic pills for skelaxin is there a drug comparative to cephalexin meclizine without prescription prednisolone ordering no prescription liv 52 prescription only what is the purpose of ampicillin resistance gene kamagra non generic order hydrea online online no prescription pharmacy ratings buy cheap rosuvastatin calcium what is mobic 15 mg tablet buy canada no prescription for nexium what are the side effects of lithium toxicity adalat online ordering over the counter uk boots buy viagra buy ampicillin from india buy over the counter kytril online yasmin side effects depression doxycycline and alcohol uk cheap cipract cheap keftab no prescription zofran 4 mg tablet dosage benefits of levitra vs viagra suprax in croatia actos online store dutas mail order india triamterine no prescription needed cardizem reviews ingredients in phentermine diet pills generic viagra march 2012 ditropan mail order india lamictal delivery london depo provera cost australia viagra sublingual women buy tramadol hydrochloride 100mg 123 reg ips tag low cost rogaine 5 lopid online store crohn;s medication entocort all types zantac pills buy tramadol online canada pharmacy changing from celexa to lexapro keftab shelf life flagyl er pharmacy prices list cheap snovitra super power pills buyers of sinemet canada dipyridamole on line for sale no script safe buy kamagra chewable online yasmin shopping & entertainment center serophene for sale natural alternatives to viagra and cialis florinef online pay paypal where to alligator hunting in texas side effects of ciprofloxacin tablets 500mg liposafe online order buy canada no prescription for ciplox 40 mg dose accutane augmentin suspension dosage for adults donde comprar xenical en espa“a viagra soft gels best pharmacy to order periactin prilosec for babies reflux what is augmentin tamsulosin dose in dogs furosemide tablets used for can you take 40 mg of levitra tretinoin 0,05 discounted percocet drug test long time side effects abilify treatment of lariam side effects accutane buy online overseas mg free cialis nz generic pamelor for sale on line canadian health and safety videos alli sale coupon gout and colchicine cost lexapro withdrawal duration med cab topamax cymbalta generic australia obat flagyl forte 500mg fastest vpxl uk delivery vermox prescription drug is viagra bad for young men can cialis viagra mixed order lasix 500mg canada biaxin tablets online buy torsemide inhaler canada retino-a cream 0,05 phone orders carafate shoppers drug mart levitra to buy in england word 2013 content control prescription drug cymbalta purchase tricor lowest price order lexapro lowest price cheap buy without albendazole online zovirax 100 mg buy dutas no prescription cost of rocaltrol without insurance grifulvin v micr 500 tablets side effects brand cialis lawsuit amlodipine besylate 5 mg tamyl ginseng capsules in philippines cipro over counter uk cialis women buy cheap viagra no prescription viagra usage buy sinequan lowest price aspirin order kinetics low cost overnight chloroquine cost of azulfidine prednisolone refill pack buy benicar 100mg online no script serpina mg what is casodex prescribed for where to alesse cheap price best place buy levitra toradol pills side effects generic viagra professional canada generic ampicillin canada buy protonix paypal fluoxetine hydrochloride generic name diclofenac tablets used for benicar how to buy silagra cost comparison carafate spain where amaryllis live blooming tadacip without prescriptions femara discount card clomid tablets buy online buying purim using paypal levaquin order on web starting dose tegretol trigeminal neuralgia cheap serophene sale uk common side effect of furosemide western lithium usa corp. registered shares o.n fluconazole tablet side effects pharmacy has best price prevacid brand quibron-t buy tj pharmacy mexico what is inderal la prescribed for generic benadryl uk paypal alli sale cheap elimite without insurance is mail order vpxl safe buy colospa online usa overnight pharmacy 4 u coupon buy adalat online with mastercard side effects of decadron tablets trazodone prices usa birth control alesse vs aviane generic alesse all types aciphex pills pariet without prescriptions online cpd pharmacy technicians carbozyne india risperdal no prrescription abilify online without script needed buy bioidentical testosterone cream bodybuilding elimite dosage children luvox prescription coupon metformin sale online original blue pill review double strength ciplox suppliers overseas hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg price best generic silagra review septilin uk buy research grade colchicine indocin buy uk when does actos go generic bentyl pharmacy online what is hydrochlorothiazide made of minocin reviews for men promethazine with codeine cough syrup effects genric viagra seroflo 500 mg can i get pregnant while taking cipro do you need rx cephalexin brand tretinoin 0,05 buy strattera over the counter india buy aciphex online in usa free coupon for erythromycin what is lithium made of Purchase glucophage 1000mg voltaren online pharmacy buy amlodipine for cats can order liposafe canada plendil generic release date order confido online online us pharmacies/no prescription needed side effects of asacol hair loss femara discounted cheap lisinopril 10 mg minocycline echeck erection packs 3 without a script buy cheap periactin pills where can i buy lined alligator clips can you buy clomid over the counter cheap levothroid pills zofran drugs nausea what is coreg data cheap clomid com efficient uroxatral discount anxiety symptoms tingling buy advair diskus pills in the mexico doxycycline cheap uk what kind of pain is toradol used for solu medrol 40 mg pfizer ringworm medication for adults beconase aq pill shop discount code taking 4 flagyl pills at once what is arjuna pills used for order alligator meat facebook search login what is finasteride made out of viagra soft best price generic name for apcalis sx actos combination therapy suhagra online without prescription quibron-t weight gain cefadroxil for sale list of legitimate online pharmacies no prescription vermox generico italiano se usa sildenafil doxazosin order on web medication side effects alphagan p albendazole dosage pediatric best place buy amaryl how to take revatio menosan prix en pharmacie en france meclizine canada overnight delivery generic for serophene tetracycline sublingual dosage bactroban 50mg tablets levlen from mexico cardizem user reviews treatment for prednisone withdrawal in dogs best place buy cephalexin online pharmacy no prescription needed rumalaya forte order levaquin tablets cipralex 5mg uses albuterol sulfate inhalation solution 0.083 for sale canada pharmacy no prescriptions online possible side effects of aciphex excel herbal viagra apotheke order shuddha guggulu tablets wellbutrin in the uk tinidazole tindamax dosage adalat la 30 pregnancy amoxil 875 mg tablet buy cheap kamagra paypal buy lamisil for daily use discount code for livingsocial purchase elocon in canada how to get motilium lisinopril 5 mg tablets where to stay in calangute goa lamisil spray precio en mexico overnight pharmacy paroxetine xeloda discounts codes combivent price comparison shatavari capsules price no prescription cafergot buy amitriptyline online purim online ordering levlen ed new zealand prescription flagyl metronidazole gyne-lotrimin order online what is the correct dosage of acai safe to buy generic betapace from canada order plus in prescriptions generic viagra atacand without a script acheter pas cher paroxetine dr reddys finasteride reviews citalopram tablets price tadacip pills online in the uk pharmacy has best price imitrex over the counter provera 10mg evecare uk online side effects of zestoretic propecia no pescription usa cheap oral jelly india kamagra buy provera online shipping isoniazid prophylaxis dose in children periactin mg tablet long term side effects of celadrin order non generic glucophage zyrtec side effects blood pressure viagara cipa approved online generic crestor 10 mg cheap benemid no prescription flagyl er prices at costco talison lithium australia buy eurax patch cialis viagra dosages costco pharmacy grifulvin v price billig geriforte syrup online kaufen lynoral drugstore.com where to buy kamagra with echeck buy viagra professional 5 ayurslim user reviews cyklokapron on line no script kamagra 100mg chewable tablet legal buy minomycin online canada buy zanaflex from mexico online the online drugstore purim sotalex 160 mg au maroc buy medicine online with no prescription buy viagra soft quick guardian pharmacy singapore bedok how to take propranolol for migraines uk buy online discount altace donde comprar yasminelle finax online bestellen buy zyvox no prescription nett evista 100 review what is hydrea pills used for is altace available over the counter purchase seroquel on line in india how to get cialis in pakistan insulin overdose treatment brand bactrim buy viagra sublingual 100mg tablet ordering levitra plus here in canada rumalaya medication what is the dose of erythromycin for acne desyrel without insurance el medicamento sertralina para que sirve discount vermox online click here cialis uk buy viagra normal lopressor dosage generic uk paypal allopurinol buy bentyl visa eurax online price plavix canada overnight delivery arthritis in dogs pain relief clomid by mail diflucan one buy online best online pharmacy generic tretinoin 0,025 order non generic cleocin gel low price levitra professional uk donde puedo comprar raiz de ginseng zoloft for purchase without a prescription cicloferon aciclovir 400 methotrexate online no prescription generic brand for valtrex alavert spain diovan prescription assistance program aricept women buy where to buy acai berry products olanzapine dosage for depression lexapro lawsuit canada buy research chemicals ship to usa ditropan tablets on line to buy buy cardura in australia best place buy l-tryptophan pct levitra professional to buy in the canada without a prescription suppliers of micronase in us craigslist london uk ppp cheap genuine hyaluronic acid online what is lasix mylan valacyclovir 500 mg took accutane now acne is back generic for differin lotion to buy cardura lotrisone online clotrimazole generic effexor xr comprar buy diflucan online thailand lipitor patent expiry ireland antiflu des gotas protonix mexico pharmacy mexico adderall antibiotics online no prescription drugs generic colospa for sale uk azithromycin tablets 250mg dosage generic uk paypal flovent why isn;t there a generic for viagra purchase viagra purchasing cymbalta online uk ventolin canada drug store micardis tablets uk uk prescription buy cheap accutane effexor xr delivery system where to buy alli diet pills in canada no prescription ginseng sale how much does elimite cream cost l-tryptophan from canada reminyl buy online ireland pharmacy usa online affordable buy neurontin in ireland does lisinopril hctz cause weight gain cheap albendazole overnight flagyl drugstore com erythromycin salep methotrexate 20 mg progestin only birth control pills brand names florinef tablet sale purchase elavil pills online prescriptions in australia pill what types of micronase are there illegal to buy viagra online comprar malegra dxt portugal acls cardizem dose haloperidol haldol side effects buy cafergot online canada no prescription ebay alli weight loss pills can you buy ayurslim over the counter in germany how to use tetracycline for betta fish clozaril patient reviews what exactly does glucophage do strattera and birth control pills flomax compression munson alberta buy lopressor paypal accepted how to buy cialis professional in london medicine actos 30 mg famciclovir tablets online bupropion xl side effects 300mg ciplox tz dose unisom express canada antabuse lowest price what is atarax 25mg used for wellbutrin sr 150 mg generic side effects unisom reviews and dosage much will lipitor generic cost cheap aricept us can you get atrovent over the counter im zyprexa dose alli bonus pills viagra with prescription cheapest zofran to buy azithromycin 250 mg pak tab sandoz canadian depakote tablet benfotiamine buy online ireland side effects of amantadine 100 mg buy exelon with no script what does mentation mean buy elavil online from mexico coversyl 10mg tablets brand advair diskus without prescription where can i get diamox pills cheap canadian clonidine no prescription finasteride 5mg vs. propecia 1mg lady era online uk disfuncion erectil causas buy prograf nizoral cream shoppers drug mart med cab tadapox best deal on viagra ephedraxin phone orders what are the side effects of viagra yahoo answers buy generic voltaren online with prescription cheap viagra no prescription online torsemide in italia western drug sinequan how much does walgreens pay per hour in indiana online flonase india overniight meds amoxicillin side effects rxlist atarax dosering hund buy coumadin new zealand online combivent fast uk ordering finpecia praziquantel and albendazole side effects caverta without a script can you buy valtrex in mexico overseas pharmacy no prescription proscar zyprexa to buy in the usa without a prescription westhroid no prescription generic tenormin us cheap augmentin us topic generic diclofenac dose for rats chloromycetin online coupon code sale medrol female cialis prescription coupon prometrium in india fucidin order in the us cafergot online in usa tretinoin 0,05 over the couter how to take alli weight loss pills prednisolone on line no script chloramphenicol on line for sale no script accutane cost assistance best pharmacy prices cialis pill shop confido mg buy cafergot weight gain ceftin dosage forms pain medication indocin fml forte no prescription compare prices discount pharmacy online jamaica what is viagra soft pills used for pharmacy that sells aldactone lamictal for sale philippines baclofen 10 mg tablet side effects fast trazodone delivery prednisone no prescription with a mastercard once a day cialis from canada luvox costco lasuna tablets online side effects of rabeprazole sodium 20 mg cb-1 weight gain pills reviews quickest nolvadex purchasing levlen online uk ampicillin discount medications buy prazosin online at canada pharmacy us pharmacies online that sell plavix buyers of voltaren canada tinidazole comprar aciphex in croatia buy levitra online ireland seroquel reviews anxiety cvs mail order pharmacy number medrol dose pack number pills what is clomiphene challenge test diflucan commercials tv cleocin phosphate side effects laxatives dulcolax reviews what is lexapro used for and side effects buy atarax in usa is there a drug comparative to zyprexa lithium side effects mayo clinic minocin shopping cheap diflucan mg fast maxaman deleviery cheap allinclusive holidays for 2009 propranolol western australia comprar nootropil original prescription mobic 100 mg diclofenac sodium gr ec 50mg tablets pioglitazone and congestive heart failure how does viagra work after ejaculation flovent cfd price midamor over counter uk augmentin medication information buy kamagra 100mg australia sildenafil citrate us pharmacy online aricept do you need rx actos diflucan one dose cheap d 24 hour allegra hicks buy diabecon next day current price decadron metformin over counter us order differin 0.3 cost of citalopram walgreens canadian healthcare pharmacy online is ventolin over the counter in canada order keppra online uk comprar pyridium portugal female viagra buy canada drugs bentyl with prescription generic styplon uk paypal how to take augmentin 500mg phenergan otc canada buy trental with visa xenical stock availability where to buy acai berry pills in nz brand name finast online misoprostol side effects miscarriage calcium carbonate and vitamin d3 tablets uses premarin spain over counter is it illegal to order medicine from canada lariam 250 mg tabletten assistance buying lexapro cheapest price benicar himalaya pilex tablets price viagra professional vs regular viagra worldwide pharmacy digoxin quickest arimidex what works better cialis or viagra low price betnovate uk what are the side effects of proventil hfa female cialis order by phone how long does it take for estrace to start working no prescription online pharmacy xanax buy wellbutrin sr fast shipping where can i get some prandin where to buy orlistat wholesale where zerit cheap speman usa buy ayurslim tablets online sambazon acai costco cialis soft without insurance nizagara purchase cheap pyridium 40 mg venlor new zealand pharmacy reviewer forum clomiphene challenge results chloramphenicol buy without over the counter maxalt buy alphagan p online canada drugs vente de antabuse au quebec asian indian alliance nitroglycerin explosion youtube amitriptyline migraine dosage worldwide pharmacy artane nitroglycerin on line no rx malegra fxt online singulair tablets wiki buy citalopram online india no prescription ophthacare in the uk nitrofurantoin tablets 50 mg doxazosin sold over counter buy grifulvin v australia brand viagra canada drug store order atarax lowest price buy generic benzac prednisone pregnancy effects voltaren retard dosering purchase levitra super active cheap what are the side effects of pamelor cheap us pharmacy generic accutane alesse with american express dutas generic equivalent furosemide 40mg tablets side effects alesse price india synthroid purchase in canada no prescription aleve pills buy frozen acai australia cipro overnight no prescription amaryl generic side effects 100 mg of clomid success famvir for men in usa is it safe to order digoxin minocycline dosage for urinary tract infection where to buy paco rabanne calandre levlen birth control pills side effects atarax from mexico can buy elavil online aciclovir tablets 400mg treatment best precose prices next day generic methotrexate shortage september 2012 comprar silagra portugal buy lotrisone online india rogaine 5 maximum dosage leukeran order canada do you need rx finax aristocort for men in usa isoptin dosage instructions nitroglycerin tablets buy amitriptyline hcl cost zantac on line no script best fertility drugs for women with pcos ciprofloxacin tablets usp isotretinoin side effects long term pravachol best price cleocin next day delivery dreamcoder mentat technologies renova black toilet paper uk cozaar price chlamydia in the mouth and throat zyloprim package insert hoodia without insurance prescription drug vytorin aciphex 20 mg twice a day no prescription endep sale prescription solutions member login cost of diflucan without insurance increase male fertility drugs buy finax for daily use buy glyset cheap brand amoxil to buy in england aldactone 25 mg tablets what is ic nitrofurantoin-macro used for prandin online bestellen buy doxazosin no prescription buy prilosec otc canada best no prescription online pharmacy reviews coumadin necrosis emedicine top 10 online neurontin sites erection pills boots cost comparison viagra vs cialis online pharmacy no prescription doctors floxin from canada what is remeron drugs cheap tadacip 20 mg viagra soft over the counter canada canadian pharmacy procardia ranitidine in croatia canada bentyl cheap kytril 40 mg generic orlistat buy canada betnovate express canada side effects of olanzapine zydis viagra from india com order prescription drugs from india generic singulair pills used buy atarax patch acai berry pills walmart reviews united support solutions new jersey brand amoxil coupon code alixa rx eden prairie pilex ordering no prescription dramamine lawsuit settlements post cycle therapy cytoxan crestor price at costco premarin without rumalaya tablets online i pill feldene website buy seroflo hong kong depakote medication where to buy what is buspar used to treat sale trazodone clomiphene side effects clomid aciclovir pas cher italie how much does valtrex cost at walgreens purchase lasix in australia lamisil tablet sale cymbalta side effects long term use what is the use of caverta tablet can you buy ophthacare in ireland cleocin online pay paypal aricept price comparison buy sumycin 20 trimox usa cvs prices can you buy protonix in ireland nizagara us companies only zenegra drug store online olmesartan side effects long term buy cheap medrol orlistat 120mg capsules side effects prednisone reviews rheumatoid arthritis buy atarax without rx digoxin pill shop discount code prilosec tablets in india strattera reviews kids buy alligator gar lowest symptoms chlamydia in men doxycycline over counter canada amoxil online effexor xr online bestellen buy roaccutane tablets domperidone side effects baby reflux buy frozen acai online betoptic online order oral augmentin pediatric dose order actoplus met online no prescription with a echeck how long to use aleve lotensin medication dosage generic name for flomax clomid multiple births iui elavil medication uses rimadyl palatable side effects craigslist posted apartment in manchester ct prescription citalopram hbr 20 mg how to import fucidin paxil maximum dosage buying medication online safe provera pill canadian venta de viagra en farmacias en chile will propecia generic available us zyloprim lowest price do you need rx eurax buy kamagra paypal uk cialis how much does doxycycline cost in uk furosemide overnight adalat xl generic what is allied health services cholestoplex lawsuit canada fertomid online legally indocin next day delivery order doxycycline no prescription eulexin in the uk now buy astelin xr without prescription glycomet no prrescription generic for benadryl buy zocor cheap where purchase mycelex-g cheap prograf free delivery xenical for sale online nootropil generic for alli medication wiki endep italiano thalidomide trust st neots que es xenical de roche buy celadrin online pharmacy add forums online pharmacy therapeutic dose of zoloft for ocd metronidazole side effects how long ephedraxin discontinued what does a medrol dose pack look like generic for alphagan eye drops brandlevitra20 order valtrex 500 mg singulair 10 mg inactive ingredients plavix overnight pharmacy buy zyprexa new zealand online is primatene mist available in mexico florinef refills keflex shelf life para que sirve ciprofloxacino 500 mg generic from proscar where nolvadex forum pharmacy direct weston generic drug for strattera order lisinopril 5mg tablets celexa 40 mg warning what is hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg used for zestril for daily use canada diamox delivery london comprar zetia original en madrid buy bupropion online with mastercard bactrim dose for treatment of uti plavix sales 2010 methotrexate tablets in india motilium without prescription miami estrace for purchase arimidex tablets side effects mobic from canada reductil slimming tablets uk aciclovir cheap us pharmacy lisinopril safe cialis betapace iv dose elavil for anxiety in dogs buying cheap clomid online order betnovate n how long do i need to use propecia prednisone over counter drug order albendazole online zestoretic low dose birth control american express rewards card singapore login when will crestor be available in generic pharmacy that sells nolvadex buy provera 2.5 mg lipitor side effects diltiazem for men in usa number one drugstore online buy propranolol greece donde comprar adalat capoten blood pressure medication pletal 100 mg uses generic version of dramamine erythromycin compound buying erythromycin using paypal purinethol canada prescription augmentin liquid rxlist mexican moduretic femara online coupons best price for acivir pills generic for voltaren’Ø ophthalmic exelon barato how to take care of a calandiva plant can you get viagra over counter spain sunrise tadalafil tablets 20 mg tadarise 20 viagra store australia revatio tablet sale buy viagra soft tab how to get sominex drug order cialis super active without prescription reviews on viagra sublingual donde comprar el shampoo nizoral en mexico paroxetine comprar how to get cialis in toronto purchase risperdal lowest price how to identify viagra pills tamoxifen non generic what class of drugs is sinemet fincar spain safe zetia buy order provera online without rx tegretol 100mg generic actos canada pioglitazone buy cardizem online overnight indian pharmacy florinef flagyl cheap uk pharmacy suhagra prices tulasi coupons asacol weight gain side effects buy singulair 4 mg order viagra and cialis online cozaar alternative medicine what is the maximum dosage of unisom cheap grifulvin v free delivery pharmacy council northern ireland buy fluoxetine in india online where do i diovan in usa is it legal to import drugs from india suhagra 40mg un rey en la habana online order geriforte florida detroit diesel allison ocala proscar online usa no prescription super kamagra fast delivery prednisone prednisolone cats xenical online forum avodart user review buy baclofen perth australia revia where to purchase ultra low dose amitriptyline canadian online pharmacy for furosemide famvir dosage generic trandate overnite shipping safe trileptal buy can i mix viagra and cialis order cefadroxil rx what is calcium carbonate drugs tadacip buy india can you buy antibiotics without a doctor prescription over counter liposafe cheap pharma org tramadol can you order femara decadron injection for croup canada health act prescription drugs cytotec precio bogota best price for real trileptal buy generic strattera with bonus naprosyn ec 500 shatavari prices usa how to stop spam emails from canadian pharmacy chloromycetin ophthalmic ointment for dogs cheap methotrexate 25 mg buy nolvadex online without a prescription english pharmacy schools in europe generic from coumadin lexapro daily use reviews where can i get aspirin mask cost of accutane without insurance in canada benzac gel 10 costo how to take augmentin 625 vitamin shoppe coupon code liposafe brand positioning renagel tablets crush femcare online antifungal yeast infections betapace on line can you buy zebeta discount bisoprolol does ortho tri cyclen lo cause hair loss inderal daily use reviews order colchicine no rx canadian pharmacy roxithromycin dosage forms buy ginette-35 online cheap donepezil 10 mg image maxalt migraine side effects over counter drug similar carafate zestril pill shop discount code voltaren no prescription overnight delivery order aciphex 20mg online order tenormin price reglan from canada buy viagra plus no prescription avandamet online pay paypal overseas pharmacy no prescription prometrium seroquel medicine children walmart pharmacy discount drugs list buy remeron 40 piroxicam capsules 10mg zetia class action lawsuit buy serevent diskus mexican pharmacy no prescription colospa information on the antibiotic flagyl being content with what you have buy zyprexa in india online what is prednisone medication for purchase cystone online viagra gel uk drinking alcohol after gonorrhea treatment acheter calandre renault duster buy adderall xr online proscar paypal can you get ralista cheapest place buy prilosec my pariet coupons prescription mobic 25 mg menosan results forum buy cialis online without rx flagyl dosage giardia dogs canada buy nizoral without prescription midamor sold over counter paxil medicine com safe nexium buy where can i buy risperdal in canada buy erexor usa diclofenaco sodico 50 mg dosis adulto rosuvastatin australia pharmacy how can you get prescribed promethazine with codeine atorlip-10 uk online baclofen without script augmentin 375 mg tablets brand eldepryl for sale forum review drugstore buy propecia 1mg avodart prescription only periactin cheap where to buy atrovent drugs online non prescription snovitra super power pharmacy moduretic tabletas can i make alli aygestin spain prograf fast usa liv 52 no prescription canada buy avapro cheap irbesartan lukol generico italiano ortho tri cyclen generic name order plavix online in usa buspar medication online buy remeron in ireland antabuse no prescription needed voveran sr tablets side effects what is benadryl pills used for best price proventil buy apcalis sx mg metformin sale uk tamoxifen for dogs buy buy suhagra next day buy precose paypal tetracycline acne side effects tadapox 100mg cheep minocycline discount code aceon 40mg erection packs 2 medicine levlen ed consumer medicine information where purchase revatio carafate suspension online buy benicar in ireland xenical reviews 2012 prednisolone uk brand name donde comprar ginseng chile atarax online in usa lexapro side effects uk can you buy altace online drugs american express business gold rewards card canada nexium prescription treatment how long does depakote er take to work stromectol for sale discount prilosec coupons pharmacy online no prescription needed what is lopressor prescribed for levitra sale apcalis mail order reglan beconase ingredients pill rx health order lantus products valtrex for sale philippines buy suprax online pharmacy canadian online pharmacy for diclofenac tretinoin cream 0.1 wrinkles dramamine paypal does alcohol affect medrol dose pack buy famvir without a script depakote no prescription needed doxycycline monohydrate 100 mg capsule isoniazid reviews for men fluoxetine 60 mg tablets cost best drugstore bronzer for indian skin where can i order keftab generic minomycin cost colospa online forum rumalaya gel dosage instructions cialis jelly canadian source allegra sales 2009 komposisi salep elocon etodolac with no rx strattera fda approved to buy without prescription best fertility drugs men lioresal 20 mg naprosyn usage tamoxifen mechanism of action in breast cancer how long should men take clomid for betnovate refills dosage of zpack for children vpxl pill shortage viagra plus 100mg cheap purchase furosemide 500mg what is provera 5mg low dose accutane moderate acne generic for viagra in united states reliable canadian pharmacy online where to buy emsam drugs online brand amoxil online pharmacies with out prescription pariet drug prices depakote online bestellen fml forte prescription only cost comparison drugs skelaxin mg sex power tablets bangladesh where is pfizer viagra made quiero comprar nymphomax tramadol fedex overnight shipping canada order elavil order toprol xl tablets low cost overnight prilosec cialis order to nigeria can ortho tri cyclen cause hair loss mail order micardis online buy benemid paypal unisom tablets ingredients erection pills over the counter south africa zoloft canada online no prescription dulcolax long term usage healthy man viagra complaints purchase yasmin on line in mexico albendazole combination