topleft
topright

Main Menu

Home
Assessment Guidelines
Organizational Politics
Public Politics
Classroom Politics
Psychological Types
Psychological Type and U. S. Political Party Affiliation Print E-mail

Do your psychological type preferences relate to your political party affiliation? Your political ideology? This article suggests that psychological type preferences indeed do influence both of these political orientations.

 

 

Introduction

 

Does your psychological type influence your political orienation and party affiliation? We think so, but research on the topic is almost non-existent. One attempt to explore the question can be found at personalitypage.com. Unfortunately, the results presented there categorize responses for each MBTI type into Democrat, Republican, Liberal, Conservative, Other, and so on. Thus, party affiliation (Democrat, Republican, etc.) is included as a category separate from political ideology (liberal, conservative, moderate, etc.). Given that party affiliation and ideology tend to be strongly correlated, this separation makes it difficult to explore the influence of type preferences on affiliation and ideology together.

 

Probably the best source of information is provided by responses collected when Consulting Psychologists' Press revised the MBTI in 1998. The revision process involved a representative national sample of more than 3000 people in the United States. One of the questions asked concerned party affiliation.

 

Results from the survey are shown in the type table below. Take a moment to study the table and see if you can find any patterns.

 

Table 1: Psychological Type Preferences and Political Party Affiliation

 

ISTJ
Dem  
30%
Rep  
42%
Ind  
28%
ISFJ
Dem  
34%
Rep  
36%
Ind  
30%
INFJ
Dem  
49%
Rep  
22%
Ind  
29%
INTJ
Dem  
19%
Rep  
40%
Ind  
41%
ISTP
Dem  
28%
Rep  
38%
Ind  
34%
ISFP
Dem  
33%
Rep  
26%
Ind  
41%
INFP
Dem  
38%
Rep  
22%
Ind  
40%
INTP
Dem  
17%
Rep  
34%
Ind  
49%
ESTP
Dem  
27%
Rep  
35%
Ind  
37%
ESFP
Dem  
39%
Rep  
31%
Ind  
31%
ENFP
Dem  
34%
Rep  
31%
Ind  
34%
ENTP
Dem  
26%
Rep  
28%
Ind  
45%
ESTJ
Dem  
32%
Rep  
46%
Ind  
22%
ESFJ
Dem  
33%
Rep  
37%
Ind  
30%
ENFJ
Dem  
35%
Rep  
35%
Ind  
30%
ENTJ
Dem  
26%
Rep  
40%
Ind  
34%

This table was adapted from 3 different slides presented in: Peter B. Myers and Katherine D. Myers, Snapshots of the 16 Types. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Copyright 2001.

 

One of the first things you might have noticed is that the distribution for party affiliation is fairly equal for many of the types, particularly for the ENFPs and ENFJs. In comparison to this pattern for the ENFs, however, the INFJ pattern shows a clear inclination for this type to report an affiliation for Democrat (49%) and away from Republican (22%). The mirror to this pattern can be seen in the responses of the ESTJs, who show a fairly clear preference for Republican (46%), although a respectable 32% of ESTJs indicate an affiliation with Democrats. Just as interesting, however, is the comparison of the INTs with the INFs in terms of Democratic vs Republican affiliation. So, one question that arises is "why do INFs differ from these Thinking types in terms of Democratic vs. Republican affiliation?" We'll present one possible answer below.

 

Another interesting pattern concerns the NTPs: ENTP and INTP. These two types appear inclined to declare a stronger affiliation with Independent than do most other types (49% and 45%, respectively). These results are mirrored by the results for the SJs and particularly the STJs. As can be seen, the STJs (ISTJ and ESTJ) report the lowest levels of affiliation with the Independent label (28% and 22%, respectively). Thus, another question that arises is "why do STJs differ from NTPs in party affiliation?".

 

Finally, at look at the four corners of the type table (the "hard edges") shows the TJs clearly affiliate with the Republican Party more so than most of the other types. As can be seen, at least 40% of each of the four TJ types (ESTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ, INTJ) indicate a Republican affiliation. Our third question thus is "why do TJs tend to affiliate with Republican?".

 


Context

 

Before answering these three questions, it might be helpful to provide some context regarding political affiliation and ideological self identification.

 

To start, let's look at trends in how people identify themselves with respect to ideology: liberal, moderate, and conservative. The graph below shows results from the biennial survey conducted by the American National Election Studies (ANES) at the University of Michigan. Participants in the survey are asked to indicate their liberal-conservative orientation using seven categories: extremely liberal, liberal, slightly liberal, moderate or middle of the road, slightly conservative, conservative, and extremely conservative. Participants may also indicate they "don't know". For the table below, all liberal responses are combined and all conservative responses are combined.

 

The results indicate at least four interesting trends. First, the percent of participants who self-identify as "liberal" has remained fairly constant, ranging from about 15% to 20%. (Recently, the percent has edged above 20%.) Second, the well-reported trend towards a more conservative orientation in the U.S. is evident in the increased number of self-identified conservatives. Approximately 30-35% of each sample have reported a conservative orientation since the mid-1980s. Third, the percent of moderates has remained consistently in the 25% neighborhood from about 1984. Finally, the percent responding "don't know" has been decreasing since 1990 from a high of 33% to a low of 20% in 2004.

  

 

 

 

 

Next, let's look at the relationship between party identification and ideological orientation. As mentioned in the introduction, these two factors tend to be significantly related. This relationship can be seen in the next table (below). The results for Republican Party affiliation strongly show the influence of a conservative political identity with about 75% of Republicans indicating some degree of conservative leaning. Similarly, Democratic Party affiliation tends toward a liberal orientation with 40-45% of Democrats indicating some degree of liberal leaning. Clearly, however, the association between party affiliation and ideological orientation is stronger for Republicans. Finally, Independents tend to mirror the national norms (especially for 2004) with Independents divided amongst ideological orientations in the following proportions: liberal (25%), moderate (45%) and conservative (30%).

 

 

 

 

 

Liberal? Conservative? Moderate? Psychological Type?

 

The chart above shows the significant relationship between ideology and party affiliation (and the relationship is statistically significant). But, what does it mean to be conservative or liberal?

 

Probably the most studied indicator of liberal-conservative orientation has been issue opinions related to social and economic issues as well as opinions about the role of government in society. For example, in terms of social issues, conservatives tend to be pro-life, against gay-marriage, and for the death penalty. Liberals, on the other hand, tend to be pro-choice, tolerant of gay-marriage, and against the death penalty. (Note: Some polls indicate these patterns are not always consistent.)

 

Although such positions on issue opinions help define liberal or conservative orientation, there are more fundamental factors that appear to underly such opinions. Our position is that these more fundamental factors can be expressed as differences in psychological type preferences.

 

Sensing-Intuition. Sensing and intuition are the only psychological type preferences that show any consistent relationship to political ideology (in the few studies of which we are aware). In particular, clearer preferences for Sensing associate with conservative leanings whereas clearer preferences for Intuition associate with a more liberal orientation.

 

Consider the characteristics of Sensing and Intuition types. Sensing types routinely are characterized as practical, realistic, and concerned with the here-and-now. They trust experience and facts. On the other hand, Intuiting types are characterized as imaginative, abstract, and concerned with the future. They trust hunches and possibilities.

 

Now consider this definition of conservatism from David Horowitz "...conservatism [is] an attitude about the lessons of the actual past. By contrast, the attention of progressives [is] directed toward an imagined future." Also, consider these definitions from the Merriam-Webster On-line Dictionary for Conservative and Liberal:

 

Conservative: "... tending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or institutions: TRADITIONAL."

 

Liberal: "...not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or traditional forms."

 

 

Comparing these different perspectives clearly suggests the conservative's respect for the proven institutions and practices of the "actual past" seem quite similar to the Sensing type's respect for experience and tradition. The conservative's desire for constructive and incremental change--Edmund Burke's notion of organic change--seems similar to the Sensing type's desire for change that clearly has been established from the facts of the situation and tradition. On the other hand, the liberal's preference for envisioning a new future is quite consistent with the Intuiting type's preference for imagination and creativity. The liberal's inherent need to not be bound by tradition is the Intuiting type's preference for change and possibility.

 

This perspective seems futher supported when we look at the critiques conservatives and liberals sometimes employ when discussing the other's psychology. For example, the following conservative critique of "leftism's" psychology clearly seems to involve S-N conflict about change:

 

The central proposal here may seem at first paradoxical but it is that attitude to the status quo characterizes Leftists rather than Rightists. It is proposed that it is not Rightists who are in favour of the status quo. They are in fact indifferent to it and may equally favour it or oppose it according to circumstances. Leftists, on the other hand, characteristically RESENT the status quo -- at least in the modern democracies. Whatever else the Leftist may be, the bedrock of Leftism is a strong dislike or even a hatred of the way the world is. They have a strong desire or even a need for political change, often extreme change.

 

 

The ideas expressed here, we suggest, reflect a clear example of S-N differences (and particularly SJ vs. NP differences) with respect to change. Those individuals with a preference for Intuiting indeed do have "a strong desire or even a need for" change. Does this need for change extrapolate to the political world?  We think so. Consider the author's further comments about "Rightists":

 

The Rightist, by contrast, generally has no need either for change or its converse. If anything, Rightists favour progress -- both material and social. So most Rightists are conservatives (cautious) not because of their attitude to change per se. On some occasions they may even agree with the particular policy outcomes that the Leftist claims to desire. They resist change, then, mainly when it appears incautious.

 

 

As those who have worked with psychological type and organizational change will tell you, these sentiments look very much like the Sensing type's attitude toward change in organizational life.  As the author notes, Rightists (or Sensing types) are not against change--if the change is incremental, pragmatic, "sensible." 

 

The foregoing critique is, of course, just that: a critique. As such, the opposite political orientation (type preference) is portrayed in a somewhat less than flattering light.  One of the contributions that psychological type knowledge can make in the study of politics--at least in our opinion--is to reframe what often seems as life-and-death political differences as typological differences that might be understood. For example, what might we gain if the Leftist (Intuiting type's) preference for change, variety, and the pursuit of possibilities is understood as just that rather than a "resentment" of the status quo?   

 

On another note,one interesting possibility is that the Sensing-Intuition dichotomy is involved significantly in current politics to the extent that S-N preferences relate differently to religious politics. Is it possible that the "culture wars" that are so prevalent in the press reflect the S-N differences played out in religious differences? Consider some of the following results from studies relating psychological type preferences to a variety of religious factors:



A sample of 315 adult churchgoers completed an index of conservative Christian belief together with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the MBTI. Christians who prefer sensing and thinking are more inclined to hold traditional beliefs than Christians who prefer intuition and feeling.

A sample of 315 adult church-goers completed the MBTI questionnaire assessment of psychological type together with an index of Christian agnosticism. The data demonstrate that Christians who prefer intuition rather than sensing are more tolerant of religious uncertainty. 

 

These results support more than 20 years of research suggesting that the S-N preferences play a significant role in one's religious affiliations--much as they appear to do with respect to political affiliations.  That is, Sensing preferences tend to be associated with more conservative religious beliefs and practices whereas Intuiting preferences tend to be associated with more liberal religious beliefs and practices.

 

 

Thinking-Feeling. Read the following seemingly disparate quotes and see if you find a theme:

 

"Any man who is under 30, and is not a liberal, has no heart; and any man who is over 30, and is not a conservative, has no brains." - Sir Winston Churchill

 

"Conservatives saw the savagery of 9/11 in the attacks and prepared for war; liberals saw the savagery of the 9/11 attacks and wanted to prepare indictments and offer therapy and understanding for our attackers." - Karl Rove

 

 

From a psychological type perspective, both quotes seem to comment on type preferences for Thinking and Feeling. For example, Thinking types often are stereotyped as making decisions with their "head" and Feeling types are stereotyped as making decisions with their "heart". Consider the common characteristics of the Thinking type: rational, logical, impersonal, critical, analytical. Now consider the common characteristics of the Feeling type: personal, relationships oriented, seeks harmony, sympathetic.

 

Rove's comments, of course, represent partisan Republican comments targeted to a Republican audience and thus his statements about liberals is framed for his purposes. However, such framing is not unusal to the world of psychological type and tends to reflect "type bias" or the tendency to characterize the opposite preference in a less than flattering light. Regardless of intention, Rove's comments imply conservatives manifest Thinking characteristics in that they have made the rational, logical, critical ("tough") decision and have "prepared for war." Also by implication, liberals are characterized as providing therapy and understanding--both characteristics arguably being characteristics of a Feeling preference (and thus, stereotypically characterized as "soft").

 

painting of familyBeyond type bias, the dynamics of sex-role stereotyping further camouflage the potential Thinking orientation of conservatives and the potential Feeling orientation of liberals. For example, CNBC commentator Chris Matthews' characterization of the Republican Party as the "daddy" party and the Democratic party as the "mommy" party illustrates this point. Along the same lines, University of California, Berkeley linguistics professor George Lakoff has provided an academic treatment of the topic that frames political ideology within the metaphor of the family. Within Lakoff's model conservatives envision the ideal government as one which is similar to conservative parenting practices referred to by Lakoff as the "strict father" model. In contrast, liberals envision the ideal government as one which is similar to liberal parenting practices termed "nuturing parent" by Lakoff. Recent empirical research  provides some support for Lakoff's ideas. For example, the editor of American Journal of Political Science noted about a recent article :

 

In “Competing Visions of Parental Roles and Ideological Constraint,” David C. Barker and James D. Tinnick III provide an intriguing account of how family values shape political behavior and constrain attitudes across issue areas. Using data from the 2000 American National Election Study, Barker and Tinnick find support for the idea that “nurturant” visions of parental roles engender egalitarian and humanitarian political values, while “disciplinarian” visions of proper parenting are associated with political individualism and traditionalism. Here, then, is a stimulating perspective on the red/blue “culture war” that in recent years has captivated the media and the popular imagination.

 

 

Here are some of Lakoff's descriptions of the "strict father model" that suggest a Thinking preference, particularly in terms of the impersonal, and ciritical approach to making judgements:

 

In addition to support and protection, the father's primary duty is tell his children what is right and wrong, punish them when they do wrong, and to bring them up to be self-disciplined and self-reliant. Through self-denial, the children can build strength against internal evils. In this way, he teaches his children to be self-disciplined, industrious, polite, trustworthy, and respectful of authority.

 

The strict father is restrained in showing affection and emotion overtly...

 

Life is seen as fundamentally difficult and the world as fundamentally dangerous.

 

 

Compare the above characteristics with Lakoff's description of the "nuturing parent model" that suggest a Feeling preference, particularly in terms of the more personal and sympathetic approach to making decisions:

 

The primal experience behind this model is one of being cared for and cared about, having one's desires for loving interactions met, living as happily as possible, and deriving meaning from one's community and from caring for and about others.

 

Children are taught self-discipline in the service of nurturance: to take care of themselves, to deal with existing hardships, to be responsible to others...

 

Through empathizing and interacting positively with their children, parents develop close bonds with children and teach them empathy and responsibility towards others and toward society.

 

 

Clearly the above descriptions imply a "masculine" vs. "feminine" framing. However, the possibility that sex-role stereotypes might obscure a relationship between T-F preferences and political ideology will not come as a surprise to anyone familiar with the history and construction of the MBTI. In particular, the T-F index on the MBTI is the only index that consistently has been scored using separate scoring weights for Males and Females (although the most recent Form M version does not). As might be expected, males historically have been more likely to indicate a preference for Thinking whereas females have been more likely to indicate a preference for Feeling.

 

(Note: The video at the end of this article shows a presentation by Dr. Lakoff wherein he discusses his ideas in more depth. The video runs for approximately 50 minutes.)

 

Judging-Perceiving. The last letter in your "type formula" is a J or a P (e.g., ESFJ, ISTP). This last letter indicates how you prefer to deal with the outer world. More specifically, this last letter indicates which of your preferred mental functions you typically use in the outer world.

 

If you prefer Judging (i.e., you are a J type), then you use either T or F in the outer world, depending upon your mental functions preference. For example, an INTJ uses T in the outer world. An INFJ uses F in the outer world. Thinking and Feeling thus are mental functions of Judging.

 

If you prefer Perceiving (i.e., you are a P type), then you use either S or N in the outer world, depending upon your mental functions preference. For eample, an INTP uses N in the outer world. An ISTP uses S in the outer world. Sensing and Intuiting thus are mental functions of Perceiving.

 

Because Js use a decision-making function (T or F) in the outer world, they prefer to have things decided, settled, and so on. Because Ps use a perceiving function (S or N) in the outer world, they prefer that things be more flexible, spontaneous, and dynamic.

 

Take a look at the pictures below. Which drawer is yours? If you are a "J" you probably prefer that your outer world be organized, planned, scheduled, ordered, somewhat predictable and so on--like the drawer on the left. If you are a "P" you probably prefer that your outer world be creatively chaotic, emergent, boundryless, and so on--like the drawer on the right.

 

 

Judging
Perceiving

 

 

Understanding which mental function a person uses in the outer world helps understand how that person prefers to exist in, and interact with, that outer world. Moreover, given that politics is usually considered as something that exists in the outer world, understanding J or P preferences should be helpful in understanding someone's orientation to politics.

 

Our hypothesis is that Js tend to me more conservative and Ps tend to be more liberal. Consider, e.g., the following quotes taken from Russell Kirk's presentation on conservative principles:

 

First, the conservative believes that there exists an enduring moral order....This word order signifies harmony. There are two aspects or types of order: the inner order of the soul, and the outer order of the commonwealth.

 

Second, the conservative adheres to custom, convention, and continuity....Conservatives are champions of custom, convention, and continuity because they prefer the devil they know to the devil they don’t know.

 

Fourth, conservatives are guided by their principle of prudence....Any public measure ought to be judged by its probable long-run consequences, not merely by temporary advantage or popularity. Liberals and radicals, the conservative says, are imprudent: for they dash at their objectives without giving much heed to the risk of new abuses worse than the evils they hope to sweep away.

 

 

This sampling of Kirk's words suggests J characteristics and preferences as seen in the emphasis on order, continuity, planning and so on. Moreover, the statement about liberals "dashing without...heed" might be restated in "P" language as being spontaneous.

 

The constrast in Judging and Perceiving orientations between conservatives and liberals may be evident when "Law and Order" issues are considered. In this situation, conservatives display their J tendencies when they emphasize the "Rule of Law," mandatory sentencing laws, limited appeals and so on in that these practices emphasize having things decided in a standard manner. On the other hand, liberals reflect their P tendencies when they seek judicial discretion in sentencing, extended appeals and other actions that keep the judicial process flexible and open to information to more fully inform decisions.

 

 

Conservative S, T, J vs. Liberal N, F, P?

 

The above discussion briefly suggests that conservatives may tend to prefer S, T, and J compared with liberals who may tend to prefer N, F, and P. How do these suggestions help us answer our original questions about type and party affiliation?

 

STJ vs NTP. First, let's consider the contrast between NTPs and STJs. As noted above, NTPs seem to affiliate with an Independent party identification whereas STJs tend to affiliate more with a Republican party identification. Morevover the STJs are more likely to be Democrat than Independent whereas the NTPs tend to be slightly more Republican than Democrat.

 

ISTJ





INTP



ENTP
ESTJ


The STJ affiliation with the Republican party seems reasonable given that about 75% of Republicans self-identify as conservative and S, T, and J preferences clearly imply conservative traits: order, practicality, custom, tradition, stability and so on. But, why would STJs identify more with Democrats than Independents? We believe the SJ orientation to tradition and custom influences the STJs to choose a traditional party over something somewhat undefined such as "Independent". Though independence may be a trait that conservatives admire when it comes to liberty, freedom, small government and self-reliance, we propose the SJ orientation to tradition--and thus traditional political institutions--influences this type's choice to express their political identity within the traditional two-party system.

 

Before looking at the NTP's Independent affiliation, let's look at something Isabell Myers & Mary McCaulley wrote about the SJ types and the NP types in the 1985 version of the MBTI Manual :

 

SJs seek order in their environment. They are organized, dependable, and conservative. They tend to solve problems by reliance on past experiences, and they dislike ambiguity.

 

NPs constantly seek the challenge of the new. They adapt to new possibilities as they arise. The are unconventional, independent spirits who hate to be fenced in.

 

 

In contrast to the conservative, traditional, SJ is the uncoventional and independent NP. Keep in mind our discussion above about J and P; in the case of the NP type, they prefer to experience and interact with the outer world with their Inuition. Thus, the NP attempts to enact in the outer world all manner of creative, changing possibilities. What is preferred is the new and original (and progressive?), not the conventional--and quite possibly not even the traditional, conventional two-party identification.

 

But, what about the results in out third table above which combines liberal-conservative orientation with party identification? Don't these results show that liberals and conservatives are about equally represented amongst those who self-identified as Independent in the ANES data? How can the NPs be our more liberal, non-traditionalist Independent when an almost equal number of conservative (and thus SJ types) also identify as Indepedent?

 

One possibility is that it is not SJ conservatives who self-identify as Independents; instead, the combination of Sensing and Perceiving preferences (SP types) may be the conservative Independent. The preference for Sensing again implies a trust in what is practical, realistic, and pragmatic. However, when combined with the preference for a Perceiving orientation to the outer world, we obtain a Sensing type who is likely to be more open to risking new things--to being a little more unconventional--than their SJ cousins.

 

One of the more interesting treatments of SJ and SP types in the political arena is provided by Dr. David Keirsey in his work on Presidential Temperament. Although there are distinct differences between Psychological Type theory and Temperament theory, there are those who have worked to combine the insights from both models. Consider, for example, Dr. Linda Berens' perspective on the 4 temperaments:

 

As David Keirsey developed his theory of the four temperaments, he began to display them to show the aspects the four temperaments have in common. As Linda Berens expanded on his work, she began to consistently display the Idealist (the types with N and F in their type codes) and the Guardian (those with S and J in their codes) on the top of the matrix to show that these two temperaments have in common a social attitude—they tend to take more affiliative roles and focus on interdependence. The Rational temperament (with N and T in their codes) and the Artisan (with S and P in their codes) are on the bottom of the matrix to show that they have in common a more pragmatic, do-what-it-takes attitude that focuses on autonomy and independence.

 

 

The relevant comparison here is between the "autonomy and independence" of the SP Artisan with the SJ Guardian's "focus on interdependence." (For an interesting "mapping" of the four temperaments onto the Nolan chart, see here.)

 

TJ Republicans. Our second observation about the Consulting Psychologists Press data is that the TJ types appear to indentify themselves with a Republican party affiliation more so than do the other types. As can be seen in the type table presented here, the TJ preferences include the four types found in the corners of the traditional type table.

 

ISTJ

INTJ

ISFP INFP

ESFP ENFP
ESTJ

ENTJ

These four corners often are referred to as the "hard edges" of the type table. This nickname results from the fact that each of these four types uses the Thinking function in the outer world. Thus, these types tend to engage the outer world in such a way as to plan, organize, and control events in a "hard" way via the impersonal, critical, task-focused Thinking function. In contrast to the "hard edges" types are the four types in the center of the type table. These four FP types all use the Feeling function in the inner world and are referred to as the "soft center" of the type table.

 

The TJ types also are referred to as the "executive types" and are described in the 1985 MBTI Manual as "...tough-minded, executive, analytical, and instrumental leaders." To the extent that the Republican party is the party of business, then these results make some sense. Numerous studies of managerial populations suggest a clear preference for TJ amongst these individuals. The TJ types also share numerous characteristics with the "strict father" parenting role discussed earlier, especially if we equate managerial style with parenting style. STJs in particular tend to prefer organizations that are conservatively designed with a clear emphasis on a chain of command, clear roles and responsibilities, discipline and so on.

 

But, what are we to do with the fact that we now have placed N preferences (ENTJ, INTJ) in the mostly conservative Republican category when earlier we noted that N preferences have been shown to relate to a more liberal political ideology? Three factors might help us understand this tendency. First, we need to keep in mind that there are different kinds of political conservatives, and that social and religous conservatives may be different from the business conservatives. Thus, it is possible that social conservatism may arise more from the SJ combination and business conservatism may arise more from the TJ combination.  Second, the NTJs' liberal tendencies may be moderated by the fact that the NTJs use their Intuiting function in the inner world. Third, the results from the ANES studies discussed above indicate about 5 to 10% of Republicans do self-identify as liberal and it may be the NTJs who contribute to this group.

 

INF Democrats. Our third observation about the data in Table 1 is that 49% of INFJs indicated an affiliation with Democrat. The INFPs are similar in that 38% of INFPs report an affiliation with Democrat. Moreover, both INFJs and INFPs report the lowest proportion of affiliation with Republican (22% for each type). These results contrast with the INTJs and INTPs (and TJs) who tend to affiliate with Republican but not Democrat.   

 

The INFs tendency to affiliate with Democrat may be understood, in part, by examining the characteristics associated with their NF mental functions combination. In particular, this combination can be thought of in a shorthand way as N=possibilities and F=for people. The NF types thus frequently are found in occupations which involve helping people to develop in some way. Such occupations include counseling and the clergy. The NFs also are attracted to the arts, humanities, and other occupations which give expression to the human spirit. 

       

When asked to "draw something which represents your ideal organization," NFs tend to present an organization that allows for human growth and development, that is decentralized, that has as a part of its mission to serve the greater good and so on. To the extent that one's preferences in the realm of organization also represent one's preference for a style of governing, then NFs clearly seem to express democracy in the sense of Mary Parker Follett's concept of democracy as self-creating coherence in that organization emerges from the interaction of the people who are involved.  Other NF visions of how to govern can be found in Harrison Owen's work on open-space technology and Peter Senge's work on the Learning Organization. 

 

Consider Senge's charachterization of learning organizations as

 

…organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.

 

Such language--nuture, collective aspiration, seeing the whole together--is the language of possibilities (N) for people (F).  Such language is very different from that of the TJ--and STJ particularly--where ideal government is characterized as efficient, rationale, practical, and so on.

 



INFJ
INTJ


INFP INTP








Comparing NF with ST mental functions presents fairly clear contrasts in that these mental functions groups are opposites. The more intriguing contrast in Table 1 is between the INFs and the INTs. As can be seen in the type table presented here, these types occupy the upper right quadrant of the type table.  The four types share in common preferences for I and N.  As described in the 1985 MBTI Manual, this group is referred to as the "thoughtful innovators" who "are introspective and scholarly. They are interested in knowledge for its own sake, as well as ideas, theory, and depth of understanding.  They are the least practical of the types."

 

Does the term " pointy-headed liberal" come to mind? Such would seem a natural type biased statement about this group.  But, then, what are we to make of the fact that the INTs self identify as Republican (and Independent)? Clearly, the T vs F difference plays out here in that the INFs associate with Democrat and INTs associate with Republican.  Thus, the discussion contrasting T and F preferences presented above may explain the different  party affliations. Another possibility is that NTs see the Democratic Party as incompetent and thus would rather associate with a political self-concept that is Independent rather than incompetent Democrat. We raise this possibility given both the record of the Democratic Party over the past 20 or so years combined with the NT concern with competency. However, such a notion is only a hypothesis at this point.  

 

Personality and Politics in Italy

 

Numerous factors influence one's political identity (parents, e.g.) but we are suggesting that one's normal personality perferences also influence one's politics.  And, given the assumption that Jung's psychological types are universal, then we should expect that the relationships discussed above between MBTI preferences and political orientations should be evident in other cultures. Unfortunately, we are not familiar with any studies relating MBTI preferences to political orientations beyond the few mentioned previously.

 

Fortunately, relevant research has been conducted in Italy by political psychologists. Instead of using the MBTI, however, these researchers used the Italian version of the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality.  The FFM involves five personality factors and is sometimes refered to as as the OCEAN model of personality to reflect the five factors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.  (More about the FFM can be found here.) Of significance for our investigation, research shows four of the FFM factors correlate with MBTI scores: higher scores on Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness correspond to E, N, F, and J scores on the MBTI.

 

Here is the abstract from the Italian study :

 

Abstract: Voters' political choices have presumably come to depend more on their personal preferences and less on their social characteristics in Western democracies. We examine two aspects of personality that may influence political choice, traits and personal values, using the Five Factor Model of personality traits and the Schwartz (1992) theory of basic personal values. Data from 3044 voters for the major coalitions in the Italian national election of 2001 showed that supporters of the two coalitions differed in traits and values, largely as hypothesized. Center-left voters were higher than center-right voters in the traits of friendliness and openness and lower in energy and conscientiousness. 

 

 

Translating the above FFM results into our MBTI framework produces the following:

 

"Center-Left (Liberal) voters were higher than center-right (Conservative) voters in traits of friendliness (Feeling) and openness (Intuition) and lower in energy (Extraversion) and conscientiousness (Judging)." So, similar to our discussion above S, T, and J preferences related to more conservative political orientations whereas N, F, and P preferences related more to liberal political orientations.

 

A more recent study in the U.S. provides similar results:

 

Personality measures of more than 6000 US electors on the Big Five Factors have been collected on the Web through a Web site designed to assess their personality. By means of structural equation modeling the impact of personality factors as well as of demographic variables, such as age and sex, on voting intentions on the forthcoming US presidential elections was investigated. Personality variables accounted for 16% of variance of voting intentions, while gender and age accounted for no more than 3%. High Agreeableness and Openness were predictive of intention to vote for Kerry, while all high Energy, Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability were predictive of intention to vote for Bush. Results are consistent with previous research conducted in a different country, using a different language.

 

 

Once again, the suggestion is that preferences for N and F are associated with intentions to vote for a more liberal candidate (Kerry) whereas E and J preferences are associated with intentions to vote for a more conservative candidate (Bush).  The results for Emotional Stablility (Neuroticism) are not directly comparable with the MBTI Step I framework, but are interesting.

 

Personality and Politics in U.S. College Students

 

More recent research employing the FFM futher supports a relationship between personality and political orientation.  This research focused on college students across five different samples (total N = 19,248) who completed a FFM questionnaire and self-identified their political orientation. Results from these studies stongly supported a relationship between Openness and Liberal self-identification, and moderately supported a relationship between Conscientiousness and Conservative self-identification.  Translated into "type" terms, these results again suggest Liberals tend toward N and P preferences whereas Conservatives tend toward S and J preferences.

 

Limitation 

 

Research shows that how one asks a question influences the answer one gets.  And, this maxim is true for questions related to political party affiliation.  In our case, we have been unable to determine the exact wording used in the 1998 study conducted by Consulting Psychologists Press to determine Party Affiliation.  We have twice requested a copy of the wording used in their survey, but have not received a copy.  Our discussion thus is based on the assumption that the wording is similar to what has been used in the ANES research. That said, if you have a copy of the wording of the question, please feel free to share it!

 

Concluding Comments

 

What we have tried to do here is outline some introductory ideas about how Jung's psychological types might relate to political orientations.  As mentioned, the research in the area is sparse (at least there is little published research).   We thus invite your comments, and will revise this page as ideas develop.


Professor George Lakoff on How Liberals and Conservatives Think

 

Xe-Media Software

 


 

 

 

 

Professor George Lakoff on How Liberals and Conservatives Think:

Short Version of More Recent Views

 

Xe-Media Software

 

To view a longer version of this video, go here.  





Reddit!Del.icio.us!Google!Facebook!Slashdot!Netscape!Technorati!Spurl!Furl!Blogmarks!Yahoo!Ma.gnolia!Squidoo!Free social bookmarking plugins and extensions for Joomla! websites!
Last Updated ( Monday, 22 October 2012 )
 
< Prev




©2005-2012 Politicaltypes.com
Joomla Template by Joomlashack
Joomla Templates by JoomlaShack Joomla Templates
arzomicin without prescription doxazosin india no prescription amoxil no prescription purchase esperal on line in mexico buy chloromycetin online elavil over counter uk vardenafilum online from uk mircette costco can you only get confido on prescription trazodone online bestellen estro without a prescription where can i get cialis jelly from can you take adalat daily avapro order in the us evista trusted online drug stores in canada anteovin order canada buy diprosone online from mexico best site for levitra super active amoxiline buy online uk canada ortho tri cyclen tablets online buy aristocort online from canada buy micardis online from australia brand levitra where can i buy buy lozol australia nolvadex buy online us buy depakote inhaler canada buy mentax boots pharmacy diabete diacor acquisto generic zoloft us cheap clomid fast delivery how to buy retino a cream cialis sublingual order aleve from australia without prescription atorlip 10 buy online us cheap cardizem sale uk norvasc dosage too high ortho cyclen delivery purchasing minocin online paxil pills online in the mexico glucophage from usa pharmacy buy disulfiramo capsules order silagra from mexico without prescription levothyroxin fast india where to buy revia online india caffeine ergotamine max dose trazodone prices usa adalat canadian online overnight pharmacy how to buy noroxin online buy zoloft pills in the canada buy stieva a pills in the australia my apo clopidogrel coupons atorlip 10 cheap india pharmacy where to buy dramamine without a prescription buy detrol online with no prescription can i order acai online no script retin a gel 0,1 mg where can i buy yagara tablets buy celexa pills in the us where do i amoxycillin in usa chloromycetin delivery levitra super active online in canada prednisone with no rx effexor xr from usa pharmacy amoxiline online in us cleocin no prescription fedex ups hong kong cialis cheap glucofage sale uk generic zocor usa generic trandate in usa do you need rx albuterol colospa buy online us robaxin buy australia hyzaar birth control online mexico elimite best online non prescription pharmacy buy nizagara cheap cilest to buy in the uk without a prescription where do i meclizine in uk metformin pills buy feldene buy usa can you take arimidex daily levoxyl from canada without rx buy exelon xr without prescription albenza uses medication best place to buy rogaine 2 online buy plendil pills in the canada generic flonase usa no script colchicine mg cheapest coumadin paypal buy doxazosin online with out prescription best price for real toprol xl buy zanaflex online canada reviews on cardizem keflex tablets price buy generic requip online buy glucovance greece purchase arzomicin on line in usa buy minomycin singapore cialis online paypal brand levitra canada minocycline delivered to your home anastrozolo online pharmacies with out prescription zyrtec drugstore com pricing maxaman fast usa generic phenergan india where to buy clomid drugs online aciclovir medication overnight delivery where to buy actoplus online canada where to buy diclofenac with mastercard tetracycline no rx generic brand amoxil cost can i make ampicillin buy cymbalta online no prescription canada cipro canada pharmacy florida cialis jelly depakine chrono dosage too high can you buy noroxin in ireland original diclofenac gel online evista mg india valaciclovir coupon code where to buy depakote online mexico where do i viagra jelly in canada cialis professional drug in germany pharmacy aleve tablets from buy wellbutrin sr where can i buy it ceftin without prescrip movalis over counter propecia limited india purchase anastrozolo on line in mexico better than lotensin cheap genuine cozaar online vytorin perth australia viagra types buy asacol online india liquid thyroxin review c ratioph discount where do i atacand in india pharmacy has best price phenamax cheapest place to buy glucophage where do i liv 52 in canada cheap bupropion free delivery purchase cymbalta in canada canada pharmacies online that sell glucotrol canadian drug company doksazosin lek buy levitra super active singapore purchase diamox in canada vasotec pills sweat mail order generic carvedilolo florida grifulvin v buying anteovin using paypal american quetiapinum doksazosin lek india companies only serophene fast uk american simvastatina buy aprovel mexican pharmacies midamor fast canada amitriptyline buy no prescription oder mg tablets of tinidazole buy cialis professional online overnight buy leukeran have no prescription purchase zebeta in usa purchase zitromax in mexico order tinidazole from usa without prescription stieva a no prescription cafergot spain no prescription cozaar can order hyzaar online albuterol buy australia generic cardizem us pill rx health cephalexin products canada pharmacies online that sell rogaine 2 buy keftab online thru paypals olistat australia pharmacy omnicef non perscription countries minocycline from uk celapram order online quetiapinum refills half price alesse parlodel medication vytorin noprescrition needed usa online pharmacy zocor on line in the canada order aristocort from mexico without prescription best place to buy seroquel without a prescription oestrogel buy online uk prilosec to buy in the canada without a prescription very cheap coumadin cheap arimidex no prescription buying yaz disulphiram costco buy arzomicin online overnight delivery order nizoral without rx is generic trandate effective buy brand minipress purchase arzomicin on line in australia best online pharmacy generic phenamax buy prinivil pills in the mexico order antabuse from india without prescription accutane pills buy buy claravis online australia no prescription buy avalide boots is it safe to order anafranil canada mentat tablets online benadryl online without rx extendaquin discount antabuse without prescriptions buy glucovance mg online sale cipro warafin online mexico lozol delivery advair diskus supplier in uk cleocin no prescription needed canadian online pharmacy keftab noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy buy generic brand levitra online with prescription luvox medication buy shuddha guggulu online overnight delivery asacol pills buy where to buy levlen without a prescription feldene doctors online tretinoin 0,05 mg mexico isoniazid discount doxycycline with prescription best place to buy glucovance in usa what is zestril low price zyban uk is skelaxin available over the counter novo digoxin canada head office fast singulair deleviery a good web page to buy actonel with no script brafix on line in the india buy mirapex boots best place to buy tadapox without a prescription retin a 0,05 mexico pharmacy decadron to buy from europe cialis super active order canada buy lotrel pills in the us zocor over the counter canada to buy cilest in uk ordering synthroid canada buy erection packs 2 online india no prescription estrofem medication hydrodiuril delivery london ceftin drugstore.com can you buy prilosec over the counter in germany hytrin uk pharmacy tamsulozin cheap canada pharmacy buy dipyridamole new zealand online online pharmacy cardura generic lipothin for sale on line canada and allopurinol eurax medication buy carvedilolo online no prescription uk can you buy sominex in ireland where can i get aloprim pills alli prices at costco albenza pills buy online thyrox canada pharmacy levaquin mexico no prescription coversyl without a prescription from australia where to buy levitra professional online without rx proventil drug schedule novo digoxin in usa albenda online pharmacy shipped to canada side effects of flovent where to buy zyban online india buy compazine bulk renagel from canada purchase mevacor on line in india brand cialis online from india can you get isotretin roaccutan no prescription compare prices buy estradiol valerate in india online eltroxin on line in the india arjuna mg no prescription over the counter medicine carvedilolo adalat with paypal payment coreg sold over counter artane for men sale in uk ortho cyclen drug schedule lotensin supplier in uk abilify non perscription countries cafergot canada overnight delivery canada buy provera without prescription get tinidazole toronto glucofage brands india can you buy nizagara over the counter maxalt online without rx over counter zebeta fluconazol uk no prescription malegra dxt cheap india pharmacy oracea on line in the mexico buy lozol perth australia cheapest place to buy trental florida salbumol levitra professional shortage generic dyazide in usa aristocort online from uk is mail order altace safe generic flomax uk is fincar available over the counter discount voltaren mg antara buy without best place to buy trental in uk purchase duphalac on line in india order cialis soft from usa without prescription diclofenac gel fast india vera bradley fabric by the yard orlistat pill shortage buy elocom online from india tofranil online in us clonidine not generic alesse canada ordering trial erection packs 2 mexico buy vistaril cheap zentel without script very cheap sertralina a good web page to buy vermox with no script estro online no prescription why has orlistar been discontinued disulphiram birth control online india brafix birth control online us duprost coupon code where can i purchase aleve cialis super active india sale naprosyn without a script amoxil drug in mexico pharmacy buy effexor xr online from mexico buy trial erection packs 1 online usa costco pharmacy meloxicam enolat price stediril cheap canada pharmacy lozol usa cvs prices kelnor online without rx amlodipin uk brand name buy lanoxin online from india trazodone on line in the india venlafaxina generic 2013 drugs serpina delivery advair diskus pharmacy order tinidazole reviews buy carafate online overnight delivery micardis canada prescription buying bupron sr using paypal plendil dosage instructions best site for digoxin generic dutasterid usa pharmacy prednisone dosepak zyloprim drug in canada pharmacy what is ampicillin drugs american elocon purchase cialis soft pills best place buy noroxin pct where could i buy sominex without prescription sildenafila canada no prescription where to buy propecia with echeck order fasigyne without prescription combivent shopping usa buy synthroid without prescription buy estro no prescription claravis online in uk buy astelin online from canada where do i emoquette in mexico kamagra oral jelly buy uk clomid to purchase without a prescription what does indocin buy online snovitra super power generic pravachol canada overnight delivery orlistat drug in uk pharmacy dyazide buy mexico will 5mg of cialis work carafate for sale australia where to buy atarax ointment ciprofloksacin generic australia buy erythromycin online usa actoplus medication overnight delivery dyazide maximum dosage cost of mail zenegra purchase levaquin in us ovral l usa sale tamsulozin buy online uk safe buy betnovate online pill rx health order tamoxifen products to buy oxybutyninum comprar flonase original canada buy feldene without prescription acquisto viagra sicuro online order microzide rx order generic metoclopramide naprosyn from canada viagra kaufen angebote unisom fda approved to buy without prescription us online pharmacy no prescription atorlip 10 buy clomifene tablets mexico safe buy rogaine 5 online buy anafranil pills online procardia pills buy vagifem bulk cheap requip pills is roaccutane available over the counter ciprofloksacin online from uk levitra professional generic name where do i seasonique in india neurontin australia pharmacy discount orlistato otc is dostinex available over the counter purchase prevacid in us buy vardenafilum online with no prescription erexin v tablets buy generic apo furosemida usa best site to buy vagifem promethazine india no prescription best online pharmacy generic antara carafate with paypal payment over the counter drugs similar to fasigyne buy amoxycillin online india where to buy toprol xl without a prescription order revia on line mexico lamictal birth control online india do i need a prescription for roaccutan retin a 0,025 over counter very cheap eltroxin where to buy trazodone with echeck paxil reviews for men torsemide for men sale in uk buy acticin mg online buy glucotrol xl with paypal tizanidinum express canada buy retino a cream 0,05 in india online side effects of prinivil mail order generic retin a cost of mail eldepryl baclofen fast mexico tamoxifen online forum kelnor drugstore com pricing ephedraxin india sale western drug vpxl cost of periactin rogaine 5 roche precio argentina female viagra shopping buyers of silagra canada glucotrol xl fast usa premarin legal us drugs similar to zenegra buy tretinoin 0,05 online from uk purchase extendaquin in mexico shallaki online purchase ordering salbumol mexico roaccutane overnight pharmacy janumet billig kaufen order allegra from usa without prescription ortho tri cyclen canada pharmacy vermox india sale kamagra on line in the canada generic viagra plus for sale on line buy actoplus hong kong brand amoxil without insurance wellbutrin sr india pharmacy eurax pills online in the usa can you buy periactin isoniazid without prescription medication phenamax fda approved to buy without prescription where do i ampicilina in india zedd uses medication order retin a without prescription best place to buy meloxicam enolat in uk buy cialis jelly pills in the canada fluconazol drug in uk pharmacy nizoral 2 percent percocet from usa pharmacy minipress online canada buy stieva a tablets c ratioph coupon code inderal without a prescription from canada canada pharmacies online that sell wigraine levothyroid mg buy cilest online in usa is there a shortage of seroquel obelit usa no prescription no prescription dutas sale where can i purchase novo digoxin pharmacy buy drugs terramycin ordering minocin usa buy lasilix singapore order prometrium on line canada generic clomifene usa pharmacy diclofenac gel mexico companies only low price cilest uk buy cozaar tablets uk where can i buy accutane tablets levaquin online pharmacy uk order key pred online no prescription with a mastercard janumet drugstore com pricing discount amoxicilina mg snovitra super power buy canada triamterene cheap uk pharmacy buy paroxetine online from mexico where to buy zenegra without a prescription maxalt online pharmacy shipped to canada snovitra super power over counter zithromax india zydis max dose research grade duphalac buspar prescription coupon cialis professional online without rx flagyl er pills online in the usa where to buy oristal mg quibron t in croatia generic ponstel uk effexor xr buy online ireland very cheap roaccutane how to get ciplox in australia cialis bestellen deutschland is it illegal to order generic salbumol where to purchase vermox vytorin lawsuit canada best place to buy cialis sublingual in mexico buy tretinoin 0,025 online from india how to order cefixime order clopidogrelum from canada without prescription purchase lanoxin pills what is raciper tablets zestril generic reviews citalopram pills online in the canada dramamine tablets uses buy serevent new zealand online is generic elocon effective lisinopril 5mg price tadapox shop net actonel birth control online uk how to buy dutasterid online pill rx health eldepryl products where to buy zebeta online without rx how to order vpxl online buy diamox tablets canada lamisilate canada pharmacy kamagra uk online can you buy aceon in ireland buy lipothin in india online purchase retin a gel 0,1 on line in mexico rogaine 2 no prescription needed canadian online pharmacy buy remeron pills in the canada acai canada overnight delivery suppliers of cabgolin in us levothyroxin cheap us pharmacy serpina buy mexico avalide drug in uk pharmacy albenza online in usa buy pravachol online from uk cheap voltaren free delivery nolvadex order by phone what is zedd made of cheapest thyrohormone paypal zofran from australia purchase suprax online no prescription buy caprysin canada purchase serophene on line in australia bupron sr noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy buy plendil tablets india albuterol online in uk evista buy without where can i buy motrin mg order cleocin gel without prescription discount klipal codeine mg buy endep without a subscription serpina australia pharmacy shallaki max dose buy norvasc with paypal do you need rx ditropan can i order seroflo online non prescription elocon unisom mg buy tamoxifen buy canada purchase mircette in australia buy flovent with a mastercard l thyroxine discount best place to buy salvent without a prescription buy ciplox no prescription gabapentine over the counter india online no prescription uk for sepibest nolvadex without subscription micardis to buy in england cialis professional cheap australia pharmacy fluconazol over the counter usa cilest online canadian estrace doctors online valaciclovir online legally cheap genuine pariet online order astelin overnight advair diskus drug schedule best price for real mirapex antivert noprescrition needed uk online pharmacy noroxin medication overnight delivery levothroid in croatia ginette 35 medicine online is aprovel available over the counter proscar delivered to your home buy lamisil retin a usa cvs prices order altace online no prescription with a amex viagra hk rogaine 2 buy no prescription where can i get some depakine chrono diclofenac order canada where to buy mometasona without a prescription trental discount order estradiol valerate online no presctiption safe to buy generic levothyroxin from canada buy diprosone online usa buying cephalexin from canada no prescription purchase olanzapine in us prilosec buy uk online diprosone purchase us pharmacies online that sell calan american trandate zoloft birth control online canada motrin tablets from buy plendil from canada with no prescription buy tinidazolum tablets usa plendil prescription only meloxicam enolat discount kelnor where to get albenza from china ordering antivert india toprol us companies only do i need a prescription for mentat buy cytotec online no prescription canada order estrace without rx buy generic klipal codeine online with prescription can you take ranitidine daily carafate generic reviews mail order robaxin online where to buy unisom with amex where to buy cymbalta with mastercard indocin discount no prescription pyridium pricing risperdal drug in usa pharmacy abilify max dose i pill depakote website order ampicillin tablets cilest online pay paypal cheap norvasc sale uk pyridium fast canada purchase metronidazol in mexico compare prices delta cortef vermox from canada with no prescription cephalexin online in canada manly viagra generic cheap sertralina uk etodolac without a prescription from canada pill rx health order voveran sr products over the counter shallaki combivent birth control online mexico prometrium drug canadian pharmacy india pharmacies online that sell buspar mirapex without rx can you order retin a cheap furosemide bought in uk retin a online from uk where can i get bystolic pills lamisilate for dogs buy can i buy sepibest in canada safe to buy generic topamax from canada albuterol mg no prescription advair cheapest rate beta val medication purchase silagra online no prescription minocycline tablets buy strattera online india no prescription purchase duprost in australia viagra jelly india where do i erection packs 2 in india anteovin usa sale buy oestrogel without rx aceon india sale buy quibron t online from usa viagra guaranteed what is fincar drugs over the counter medicine that acts as stieva a flagyl order canada clozaril drugstore.com cheap levitra super active mg florinef buy online australia lasix online from usa where do i sinequan in canada buy zestril capsules zenegra from china where to buy sumycin online usa xenical delivery uk topamax online doxazosin canada sale comprar anafranil portugal key pred mail order indian generics online disulfiramum salvent prices cvs thyroxin generic uk what is furosemide made of florida vermox how to buy elimite retin a shopping ordering minomycin mexico viagra sublingual mg canada generic viagra plus safe detrol online bestellen trileptal cheap australia pharmacy buy trial erection packs 1 online safely trileptal shopping genuine elavil best price flucazole drug in fr pharmacy ordering arava usa erection packs 2 usa pharmacy decadron on line in the india prometrium online from uk purchase vytorin on line in uk diarex drug in fr pharmacy online pharmacy uk mirapex purchase geriforte on line in the uk sumycin uk brand name cialis professional medication on line florida rythmol sr buy arzomicin online from usa order azitromicina online no prescription with a echeck buy procardia usa diclofenac gel on line in the mexico pharmacy has best price diarex orlistatum from usa pharmacy buy estrofem online can order olistat online atarax mg tablet how to buy seroquel is generic januvia available in usa buy plavix pills in the mexico buy allegra mg online for to buy nizagara in uk order bupron sr online no prescription with a amex alti doxycycline limited india buy leukeran mg best place to buy mevacor online usa buy zebeta without prescription where can i purchase avalide grifulvin v without script long time side effects levothyroid ordering plavix usa ondansetrona from canada without rx order fluoxetina on line mexico uk buy metrogel without prescription to buy micronase buy levitra super active mexican pharmacies tadacip italiano anteovin mg usa janumet canada overnight delivery where to buy almetec with mastercard ciprofloksacin online with out prescription buy lotrisone tablets canada metrogel drug in canada pharmacy can you only get fasigyne on prescription is movalis legal in uk aleve fast uk buy stieva a greece buy trial erection packs 2 pills in the india zanaflex with no subscription order klipal codeine online cilest online in canada buy trazodone online from uk nitrofurantoin buy without can you buy colospa in ireland generic vagifem us order danazol from india without prescription micardis uk companies only uk buy furosemide without prescription can you get motilium ordering lozol on line online viagra professional purchase rogaine 5 on line no script buying zoloft using paypal can you get triamterene pariet order online no prescription buy albendazole perth australia tadacip perth australia trental non perscription countries flomax pills buy online coumadin drug class generic imitrex usa pharmacy wellbutrin doctors online where to buy toradol ointment viagra sublingual over the counter c ratioph for dogs buy ovral l without prescription meloxicam enolat coupons diarex india no prescription pariet trusted online drug stores in canada best website for metformin cost of mail provera ordering motrin usa best site get cilest ovral l drug in mexico pharmacy effexor xr price india order clavamox from mexico without prescription hydrochlorothiazide order order duetact on line canada ordering oxybutyninum canada colchicine birth control online us relafen uk companies only maxalt from india what is zoloft used for is it illegal to order generic hoodia can you buy extendaquin online buy pulmicort online with out prescription ortho cyclen fda approved to buy without prescription retin a gel 0,1 india sale buy brand flovent over the counter medicine ivenox buy raciper without prescription safe to buy generic glucophage from uk purchase nitrofurantoin online clozaril without prescription medication the chepest mentax permethrinum cheap mexico pharmacy actonel with no subscription buy roxithromycin tablets safe place order emsam flunil to buy from europe comprar zoloft portugal buy arimidex online cheap where do i feldene in usa what is eurax tablets cheap celadrin mg safe to buy generic zebeta from uk order trial erection packs 3 online no prescription with a echeck estro pills buy online order shuddha guggulu rx buy tamoxifen online from usa buy micardis online from canada cheap advair pills predalone online pay paypal buy prevacid capsules key pred with paypal payment methotrexate next day delivery buy prinivil tablets australia order furosemide on line canada canadian pharmacy online zenegra buy kelnor boots pharmacy over the counter trileptal alli capsules cheap eldepryl over the counter drugs similar to colchicina best place to buy shallaki in usa us pharmacies online that sell medrol dosepak toprol xl online ordering buy over the counter priligy online what is brand amoxil mg used to treat non prescription shallaki pharmacy relafen canada sale what does zyrtec buy probalan without rx best online pharmacy generic exelon buy azurette pills in the india where to buy cheap generic trial erection packs 1 etodolac for dogs buy can you take erection packs 3 daily delta cortef over counter uk purchase lotrisone online brand amoxil without prescription tricor online australia actonel coupons ordering ciprofloxacina olanzapine buy online canada do i need a prescription for mircette trental fda approved to buy without prescription viagra sicher kaufen canadian drug company caffeine ergotamine where to purchase cleocin gel buy sumycin in singapore buy thyroxin cheap ditropan usa pharmacy cheapest zyprexa tablets uk cefadroxil online pharmacy shipped to canada metocarbamol no script order plendil from usa without prescription canadian drug company obelit zyrtec delivery uk doxazosin no prescription fedex ups diamox online from usa adalat to buy from europe buy elavil new zealand online what is colchicine used for where can i purchase antara where to buy diflucan online india what is keppra made of cialis sublingual weight gain zantac birth control online uk where do i florinef in mexico buy synthroid online uk no prescription levothroid online without rx vardenafilum to buy from europe buy doksazosin lek online from australia rogaine 5 over the counter australia online fincar overnight delivery lopressor online from uk what is cephalexin mg used to treat flovent discount buy key pred online from uk emoquette without insurance brand doksazosin lek buy cialis jelly mail order purchasing oratane online uk where to buy lopressor without a prescription where to buy priligy online uk where to buy naprosyn mg duprost uk online buy speman online usa is generic doxi 1 effective purchase sepibest on line in australia bupropion where to get oristal in croatia buy medazole boots generic acnetane cost trimox cheap uk benicar tablets buy zantac drug class buy imitrex tablets india ponstel supplier in uk buy ciprofloksacin greece is oratane legal in uk atorlip 10 online without prescription where to buy phenergan with amex astelin coupons best price for real cialis jelly metrogel without a prescription from uk cabgolin over the counter drugs generic pulmicort india zanaflex price india detrol without a prescription from uk provera medication on line legal buy elocom online canada generic retin a gel 0,1 india florida dyazide what types of curacne are there discount clopidogrelum from canada reviews on moduretic best place buy obelit pct seasonique dosage instructions where to buy altace fluticanose medication overnight delivery benicar buy no prescription tadalis sx tablets price viagra rezeptfrei deutschland purchase robaxin in usa buy apo clopidogrel in singapore buyers of viagra jelly canada best place to buy vermox in usa generic levothroid in usa mircette billig kaufen india pharmacies online that sell geriforte viagra online bestellen ohne rezept cheap erection packs 3 pills detrol canada order dostinex tablets buy noroxin online pharmacy bactrim birth control online india metronidazol over the counter uk generic geriforte uk paypal januvia without script colchicina overnight pharmacy buy vagifem online from uk best price thyrox nitroglycerin lowest price viagra jelly canadian online all types tretinoin pills diamox sublingual dosage xenical not generic plavix mg no prescription antabuse canada pharmacy motrin 800mg generic levitra uk generic microzide us sildenafil tablets canada sildenafil citrate drug schedule canada and avalide order unisom from uk without prescription purchase microzide on line in usa purchase generic wigraine bupron uk sale fluticanose side effects long term use legal buy duphalac online canada generic innopran xl uk clincin on line in the india etabus order online buy retino a cream boots where to buy lamisil with amex where to buy fluconazol online mexico costco pharmacy deltasone price zofran mg order billig emoquette online kaufen western drug dilantin propranolol fast usa retino a cream 0,05 on line no script mircette dose generic cleocin safe salvent perth australia mexico pharmacies online that sell cialis is it safe to order trandate tinidazole mexico no prescription tegretol without subscription can order duphalac online obelit canada pharmacy can you take lithium daily nitroglycerin refills atorlip 10 mg order propecia with no subscription how to order flonase online purchase prednisolona on line in usa order anastrozolo on line uk zithromax pills online in the australia usa buy avapro without prescription orlistar generic uk vardenafil store where to buy tindamax with visa order actos overnight non prescription arjuna pharmacy online pharmacy viagra professional rogaine 2 generic canada aleve weight gain renagel women buy raloxifeno online in canada order atomoxetin without prescription order accuran from usa without prescription purchase cefadroxil on line in australia buy nitroglycerin australia over the counter drugs similar to omnicef isotretin sold over counter where can i buy zyvox mg best price eurax order alfa flucon rx depakine chrono brands india tretinoin 0,025 pills online in the india medazole canada head office is zestoretic available on line in canada cheap nitroglycerin mg can order alti doxycycline online buy v gel online from india i pill colospa website duphalac usa pharmacy over the counter drugs similar to alavert aloprim prices usa buying viagra from canada no prescription confido limited india parlodel generic wikipedia drugs albuterol for sale philippines buy clozaril online cheap can order sumycin online where do i propranolol in india floxin generic mexico proscar canada prescription safe buy ondansetrona online raciper buy mexico tretinoin 0,05 over counter buy generic acivir pills online with prescription comprar estrace portugal trileptal fast uk buy zentel with no script cialis or viagra amazon microzide uk buy where purchase yaz lloyds pharmacy reglan overnight pharmacy buy microzide pills in the india buy bisoprolol aristocort uk no prescription motrin drug in uk pharmacy brafix generic wikipedia drugs levothyroid results forum fastest quetiapinum uk delivery buy evista xr without prescription can order ephedraxin online purchase apo clopidogrel on line in the uk what is torsemide made of robaxin uk brand name cheap erection packs 1 mg buy cefadroxil tablets canada aciclovir cost in canada what does aripiprazola generic ortho cyclen in usa orlistatum pills sweat cipro fast canada yasmin medication side effects order digoxin online no prescription with a mastercard is himcocid available over the counter demadex shortage tretinoin cost in canada order etodolac on line mexico trimox brand positioning how much will tretinoin 0,05 cost best site for stediril vasotec birth control online australia celexa from uk buy gabapentine boots cefadroxil buy online canada over counter stromectol periactin buy australia viagra price in indian rupees cheap canadian amoxil no prescription oristal buy no prescription buy lexapro australia retino a cream 0,05 for dogs buy non prescription estrofem raciper for sale evista order by phone buy prednisolone online no prescription canada what drug category is tamoxifen super active cialis ceftin mg order buy bystolic online uk no prescription duphalac lawsuit canada purchasing probalan online uk buy seroquel pills online zebeta discount no prescription cialis canadian where to buy hyzaar online uk levaquin with no perscription generic prednisona cost clavamox price india premature ejaculation buy actoplus met perth australia stromectol doctors online innopran xl from china aprovel noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy how to buy ampicillin online dilantin with prescription purchase micronase in india cialis sublingual buy online india nolvadex spain dyazide brands india research grade viagra azitromicina pharmacy order is warafin a prescription drug med cab differin prednisolona uk no prescription order yagara rx roxithromycin noprescrition needed uk online pharmacy where to buy cheap generic midamor order minocycline without rx apo furosemida canada pharmacy movalis not generic clonidine cheap uk pharmacy how to buy extendaquin in canada health canada proscar buy voltaren boots pharmacy amantadine australia price best online pharmacy generic demadex order zyloprim online canada med cab nitrofurantoin buy finasteride online uk side effects of brafix viagra jelly usa no prescription brand viagra pas cher costco pharmacy metoclopramide price predalone delivery london compare prices metrogel lantus without a prescription from us canadian pharmacy oxybutyninum buy revia cheap best site get nitroglycerin paxil mg canada sominex mg no prescription comprar fasigyne original en madrid lasilix lawsuit genuine citalopram best price what is levothyroid tablets purchasing prilosec online uk drugs similar to zertalin sumycin buy no prescription cheap genuine thyroxine online priligy online pharmacy shipped to canada caffeine ergotamine italiano buy dilantin tablets best site for metronidazol zebeta delivery anafranil fast uk ampicilina usa sale avalide buy online canada predalone buy online mexico generic himcocid no prescription list of tesco stores selling mevacor ivenox drug schedule amoxicilina uses medication over the counter mobic paroxetine with no rx metrogel online without rx where can i get some abilify purchase lipitor in india actos online uk buy glucophage hong kong lotensin mg usa mail order generic confido nexium in usa purchase aristocort in india best online pharmacy generic emsam my bystolic coupons where to buy thyroxine with amex biaxin buy online australia nexium on line in the uk where to buy nitrofurantoin ointment order carafate on line uk zanaflex online india viagra jelly online pharmacies with out prescription can i make isoptin buy aciphex online no prescription us buy risperdal tablets buy liposafe online from uk synthroid australia pharmacy online pharmacy uk nolvadex stromectol mg canadian rx extendaquin no prescription overnight delivery allopurinol cheap mexico pharmacy flovent online forum femara over the counter drugs buy online nizoral generic keftab buy online canada low price altace uk best place to buy prednisolona online order digoxin on line mexico purchase zovirax online no prescription delta cortef no prescription raciper order canada renova mg canada buy etodolac new zealand online orlistato buy online ireland toradol pills online in the australia where can i get microzide from best place to buy malegra dxt in india vardenafilum mg canadian rx levothyroxin generic reviews where can i buy lady era online without a prescription cipralex drug in germany pharmacy amoxycillin generic usa hydrochlorothiazide over the counter usa discount lithium mg what drug category is mirapex dyazide perth australia brand levitra cheap us pharmacy safe to buy generic minomycin from canada cialis soft birth control online india canadian pharmacy online prednisona where can i buy aleve ovral l generico italiano provera overnight pharmacy buy antabuse online pharmacy sepibest legal in england toprol without a perscription buy aldactone online us no prescription online pharmacy rogaine 5 erythromycin fast mexico dramamine medication on line order flonase from canada without prescription buy janumet no prescription do you need rx wellbutrin buy generic desyrel online eurax pharmacy order atarax mg order januvia pct buy baclofen on line in the uk best site to buy atarax minipress with no subscription fluoxetina from australia purchase ovral l mg actoplus online canadian purchase actos online flovent usa no prescription prozac pill shortage ordering carvedilolo on line buy alesse online us no prescription how to take flovent mg duphalac brand positioning american alesse tretinoin 0,025 side effects long term use ampicilina prices ephedraxin online pharmacies with out prescription robaxin discount voucher buy flagyl er inhaler canada methotrexate maximum dosage purchase glucofage in india zentel tablets price reviews on leukeran compare prices alli glucotrol xl birth control online australia propecia uk next day delivery salvent no prescription compare prices dostinex prices usa mircette mg buy prandin from australia can i order elocom online order oestrogel on line mexico buy quetiapinum online from canada best place to buy clavamox in uk cabgolin australia companies only albendazole discount voucher purchase sildenafil citrate in us where do i azitromicina in australia novo digoxin cheap india pharmacy sildenafil or viagara over the counter medicine that acts as danazol zestoretic uk online purchase cialis super active in usa tamsulozin online india best place buy eurax pct buy calan tablets uk vardenafil india generic pills for microzide where to buy apo furosemida online india to buy glucophage metronidazol no prescription overnight delivery viagra over the counter walgreens buy ginseng online from mexico pill rx health haldol products how to take deltasone mg purchase dutas on line in canada cheap suhagra uk cheap stieva a free delivery retino a cream 0,05 discount no prescription order paroxetine tablets generic zyban for sale on line best place to buy phenergan in canada order bupron sr online no prescription with a mastercard triamterene for men in usa novo digoxin online uk order prednisona online no presctiption albendazole online from india betnovate mg india orlistatum women buy rosuvastatin lawsuit generic arimidex buy canada disulphiram online in uk zofran dosage instructions low price levaquin uk nitroglycerin without a prescription from us ayurslim from canada with no prescription stediril for dogs buy side effects of cialis jelly ordering key pred uk use antabuse coupon online best site for brand viagra legal buy etodolac online canada generic plavix at walmart buy imitrex australia where do i ovral l in australia buy lopid usa diprosone delivery london januvia cheap uk safe to buy generic kamagra from canada buy doksazosin lek tablets non prescription cafergot pharmacy metronidazole generic india comprar cymbalta portugal generic uk paypal depakote ceftin online canada buy tretinoin online overnight etodolac drug in fr pharmacy buy salbutamol usa ayurslim usa usa buy cardizem without prescription avodart for sale australia yaz no prescription needed online protonix india leukeran mg order prinivil buy mexico propecia from usa effexor xr shop net comprar artane portugal bupropionum online pharmacy shipped to canada cefadroxil on line in the india alfa flucon dosage instructions where can i buy lotrisone tablets best place to buy cephalexin without a prescription is it illegal to order generic valtrex tetracycline cheap uk pharmacy order stromectol online no prescription with a visa online retin a 0,025 india what is etabus used for how to order salbumol bupropionum coupons baridium drugstore com pricing is generic glucovance effective how to buy ditropan online deltasone overnight pharmacy levaquin without insurance bupron sr pills buy online metformin side effects long term use purchase danazol on line in the uk claravis drug canadian pharmacy compare prices keppra order amlodipinbesilat without rx januvia without a perscription online lantus purchase quibron t shoppers drug mart health canada erection packs 1 oristal without a prescription from mexico is cozaar legal in uk buying evista in manchester clavamox pills online in the usa actonel best online non prescription pharmacy oristal over counter uk where to buy cheap generic celadrin research grade albuterol citalopram generic uk lanoxin online in uk purchase wellbutrin sr on line in usa medazole mg uk levlen uk brand name dapoxetine on line no script cheap diamox uk generic tetracycline uk ordering prilosec uk best place to buy fluconazol buy etodolac tablets is moduretic available over the counter canada pharmacies online that sell c ratioph prednisona india no prescription how to use minipress tizanidinum online pay paypal order reglan rx best site for phenergan how to purchase colchicine emsam order in the us ordering isoniazid do you need rx olanzapine ranitidine online canada best price stediril compare prices nootropil ayurslim medicine online fluconazol pills buy purchase generic bupron buy raloxifeno with no script rogaine 2 uk online top 10 online capoten sites nolvadex shoppers drug mart buy phenergan in ireland esperal canada no prescription evista no prescription zocor shortage clavamox where can i buy it viagra super active online without rx buy lipitor india very cheap quetiapinum mail order generic zenegra buy brand nexium indocin birth control online australia best place to buy mobic online levitra super active from canada where to buy plavix online usa where to buy salvent without a prescription order retin a gel 0,1 online no presctiption amoxycillin without a prescription cipralex without insurance sinequan best online non prescription pharmacy depakine chrono where to buy in canada celapram drugstore.com order anastrozolo from mexico without prescription purchase novo digoxin pills buy paxil online no prescription uk can order disulfiramo canada cefixime mg usa prednisona delivered to your home best place to buy prednisolona in canada buy estrace online no prescription usa order key pred tablets buy emsam mg online for buy acai without prescription buy coreg in singapore lansoprazol roche precio argentina generic eltroxin usa warafin order online no prescription purchase carvedilolo in uk buy keftab pills in the australia carafate coupon code buy premarin without prescription buy salvent online amazon where to buy doxi 1 mg retail viagra price us pharmacies online that sell periactin buy cipralex online canada no prescription buying remeron in manchester brand elavil buy bystolic without insurance cefadroxil from usa order cialis from mexico without prescription finasteride website alpe levothyroxin birth control online india eurax generic 2013 drugs order albendazole online uk sepibest canadian online do you need rx plendil where to buy riperdal with amex viagra price in dubai buy acivir pills online with no prescription vytorin next day antabuse dose sepibest fast mexico is it illegal to order generic unisom order tindamax online no prescription with a visa clozaril mexico companies only almetec to buy canada innopran xl tablets online buying pulmicort buy yagara online in the united states without a prescription cheap genuine betnovate online generic cleocin gel india pill rx health diclofenac gel products aldactone from canada with no prescription orlistato without a prescription from mexico best online pharmacy generic lotrisone actos mexico no prescription can i buy flovent in canada cymbalta drug in usa pharmacy sale trental best price c ratioph is it illegal to order generic diclofenac gel retin a gel 0,1 uk brand name cost of janumet without insurance revatio reviews overseas pharmacy no prescription tegretol safe buy trileptal online canada lanoxin tablets online buyers of lipothin canada cheap eurax mg buy aygestin online canada viagra colours aygestin pills uk buy danazol without prescription brand confido buy key pred mg canada how to get lotrisone in australia order tadalis online uk depakote for sale australia trileptal prices where to buy exelon with echeck himcolin from india buy liposafe online pharmacy best place to buy zestoretic cipro over the counter drugs sinequan results forum buy estrofem new zealand online buy thyroxin no prescription medrol dosepak mexico companies only nizoral tablets can you get sominex arzomicin no prescription misoprost fda approved to buy without prescription best place to buy proscar in canada zoloft online from uk beta val order online wellbutrin online usa best clonidine prices maxalt delivery london where to buy pills for yeast infection best place to buy thyrox without a prescription atomoxetin where to buy in canada how to take tizanidinum mg generic dutas uk cheap micronase sale uk best price for real clonidine do i need a prescription for zyban what is amlodipin made of mexican pharmacy no prescription riperdal triamterene mg india my etodolac coupons levothroid prescription coupon asacol canadian online overnight pharmacy himcolin where to buy in canada zenegra over the counter uk buy provera online no prescription us generic cabgolin uk paypal viagra de hon kong frusemide mexico companies only voveran sr delivery nolvadex cheap uk ciprofloksacin uk sale aristocort in usa vytorin generic uk no prescription flonase sale buy yagara have no prescription shallaki over the counter usa how to buy emsam online legit non prescription viagra fucidin pills amantadine from china fasigyn uk buy viagra jelly mexico companies only where to buy elavil erection packs 1 discount voucher buy eurax online us no prescription albenza birth control online australia what is arzomicin used for furosemide pills online in the usa buy brand levothyroid buy malegra dxt online overnight advair without a perscription comprar levothyroid original best place to buy celadrin in canada ondansetrona pill shortage where do i demadex in canada what is mevacor pills used for where to buy cheap generic accutane can i make renova how to buy isoptin in canada list of tesco stores selling toradol no prescription tadacip buy viagra uk paypal viagra plus online no prescription fast thyroxine deleviery colospa delivery london permethrinum discount zetia overnight pharmacy where can i buy zyloprim where to buy kelnor mg cheap isoptin mg vega 100 coreg order by phone safe place order mirapex olanzapine for purchase without a prescription arimidex tablets from buy kamagra express canada what is coreg made of order aldactone from usa without prescription order generic cialis soft buy celebrex perth australia artane mg buy buy otomax tablets india purchase pariet in uk digoxin uk brand name buy cipralex cheap can you buy premarin over the counter shuddha guggulu from usa pharmacy amitriptyline cheap canada pharmacy american cymbalta duprost birth control online india thyroxine india companies only over the counter medicine ciprofloxacina where to buy mometasona in canada safely pyridium uses medication buying mirapex from canada no prescription cheap brafix uk misoprost over counter uk tadacip 20mg generic cialis kmart pharmacy generic drug list hytrin discount discount protonix of canada buy suhagra mg online purchase aciphex on line in canada can you buy kelnor over the counter in germany western drug mevacor lithium cheap us pharmacy yagara without prescrip is flomax a prescription drug topamax phone orders citalopram with paypal payment strattera uk brand name buy cymbalta online india can order prednisona online long time side effects levitra plus is zantac legal in uk hoodia without prescrip disulphiram side effects uk long term side effects of altace purchase minocycline on line in canada how to buy pravachol online seroquel online forum cytotec where can i buy betnovate canadian online overnight pharmacy revia where to get stromectol without a prescription accuran us companies only cheapest hytrin tablets uk buy zyvox pills online how to use bisoprololi fumaras no script l thyroxine mg buy differin boots pharmacy estradiol valerate daily use reviews viagra 100 precio tofranil buy mexico best place to buy biaxin in canada brand name depakote online is periactin a prescription drug tegretol usa cvs prices generic depakine chrono switzerland dutasterid canadian online overnight pharmacy duetact dosage instructions order probalan on line usa order generic tricor prilosec pharmacy prices list generic fasigyn no prescription buy v gel mg online buy ginseng online from india purchase aceon in india buy tadalis online usa health canada aldactone long term side effects of ginette 35 furosemide shortage billig nizagara online kaufen actoplus met generic canada safe to buy generic ginette 35 from canada crestor prescription only american aleve viagra in japan buy generic vpxl online no prescription glucovance where to get aceon online india get flagyl er las vegas voltaren online australia buy trandate tablets pharmacy buy drugs artane order otomax on line mexico buying clozaril using paypal stromectol without script pharmaceutical grade viagra toprol buy online uk viagra sublingual trusted online drug stores in canada omnicef on line in the usa apo clopidogrel prices usa brand levitra pills singulair pills accutane mexico no prescription buy elocom inhaler canada eltroxin where can i buy alli without prescription pills lamisilate online coupon code where to buy renova online pharmacy doksazosin lek v gel brand positioning tofranil uk next day delivery safe to buy generic nizagara from usa ordering estro canada order cialis super active online canada where to buy cheap generic clonidine can you only get brand viagra on prescription buy eldepryl online amazon elocon without script can you buy xenical over the counter in germany toradol uk buy buy dipyridamole mg where to buy lexapro with visa mexico pharmacies online that sell ranitidine provera delivered to your home levitra on line in the canada geriforte pills sweat order raciper from india without prescription finpecia online confido without a script where to buy cleocin online without rx phenergan reviews betnovate delivery london cialis for daily use review shallaki for sale buy carafate pills in the australia clincin canada pharmacy order bystolic on line uk buy voltaren in india online where could i buy hydrochlorothiazide without prescription purchase biaxin in australia usa buy cardura without prescription order thyrox on line india purchase predalone on line in india cabgolin generic reviews