topleft
topright

Main Menu

Home
Assessment Guidelines
Organizational Politics
Public Politics
Classroom Politics
Psychological Types
Psychological Type and U. S. Political Party Affiliation Print E-mail

Do your psychological type preferences relate to your political party affiliation? Your political ideology? This article suggests that psychological type preferences indeed do influence both of these political orientations.

 

 

Introduction

 

Does your psychological type influence your political orienation and party affiliation? We think so, but research on the topic is almost non-existent. One attempt to explore the question can be found at personalitypage.com. Unfortunately, the results presented there categorize responses for each MBTI type into Democrat, Republican, Liberal, Conservative, Other, and so on. Thus, party affiliation (Democrat, Republican, etc.) is included as a category separate from political ideology (liberal, conservative, moderate, etc.). Given that party affiliation and ideology tend to be strongly correlated, this separation makes it difficult to explore the influence of type preferences on affiliation and ideology together.

 

Probably the best source of information is provided by responses collected when Consulting Psychologists' Press revised the MBTI in 1998. The revision process involved a representative national sample of more than 3000 people in the United States. One of the questions asked concerned party affiliation.

 

Results from the survey are shown in the type table below. Take a moment to study the table and see if you can find any patterns.

 

Table 1: Psychological Type Preferences and Political Party Affiliation

 

ISTJ
Dem  
30%
Rep  
42%
Ind  
28%
ISFJ
Dem  
34%
Rep  
36%
Ind  
30%
INFJ
Dem  
49%
Rep  
22%
Ind  
29%
INTJ
Dem  
19%
Rep  
40%
Ind  
41%
ISTP
Dem  
28%
Rep  
38%
Ind  
34%
ISFP
Dem  
33%
Rep  
26%
Ind  
41%
INFP
Dem  
38%
Rep  
22%
Ind  
40%
INTP
Dem  
17%
Rep  
34%
Ind  
49%
ESTP
Dem  
27%
Rep  
35%
Ind  
37%
ESFP
Dem  
39%
Rep  
31%
Ind  
31%
ENFP
Dem  
34%
Rep  
31%
Ind  
34%
ENTP
Dem  
26%
Rep  
28%
Ind  
45%
ESTJ
Dem  
32%
Rep  
46%
Ind  
22%
ESFJ
Dem  
33%
Rep  
37%
Ind  
30%
ENFJ
Dem  
35%
Rep  
35%
Ind  
30%
ENTJ
Dem  
26%
Rep  
40%
Ind  
34%

This table was adapted from 3 different slides presented in: Peter B. Myers and Katherine D. Myers, Snapshots of the 16 Types. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Copyright 2001.

 

One of the first things you might have noticed is that the distribution for party affiliation is fairly equal for many of the types, particularly for the ENFPs and ENFJs. In comparison to this pattern for the ENFs, however, the INFJ pattern shows a clear inclination for this type to report an affiliation for Democrat (49%) and away from Republican (22%). The mirror to this pattern can be seen in the responses of the ESTJs, who show a fairly clear preference for Republican (46%), although a respectable 32% of ESTJs indicate an affiliation with Democrats. Just as interesting, however, is the comparison of the INTs with the INFs in terms of Democratic vs Republican affiliation. So, one question that arises is "why do INFs differ from these Thinking types in terms of Democratic vs. Republican affiliation?" We'll present one possible answer below.

 

Another interesting pattern concerns the NTPs: ENTP and INTP. These two types appear inclined to declare a stronger affiliation with Independent than do most other types (49% and 45%, respectively). These results are mirrored by the results for the SJs and particularly the STJs. As can be seen, the STJs (ISTJ and ESTJ) report the lowest levels of affiliation with the Independent label (28% and 22%, respectively). Thus, another question that arises is "why do STJs differ from NTPs in party affiliation?".

 

Finally, at look at the four corners of the type table (the "hard edges") shows the TJs clearly affiliate with the Republican Party more so than most of the other types. As can be seen, at least 40% of each of the four TJ types (ESTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ, INTJ) indicate a Republican affiliation. Our third question thus is "why do TJs tend to affiliate with Republican?".

 


Context

 

Before answering these three questions, it might be helpful to provide some context regarding political affiliation and ideological self identification.

 

To start, let's look at trends in how people identify themselves with respect to ideology: liberal, moderate, and conservative. The graph below shows results from the biennial survey conducted by the American National Election Studies (ANES) at the University of Michigan. Participants in the survey are asked to indicate their liberal-conservative orientation using seven categories: extremely liberal, liberal, slightly liberal, moderate or middle of the road, slightly conservative, conservative, and extremely conservative. Participants may also indicate they "don't know". For the table below, all liberal responses are combined and all conservative responses are combined.

 

The results indicate at least four interesting trends. First, the percent of participants who self-identify as "liberal" has remained fairly constant, ranging from about 15% to 20%. (Recently, the percent has edged above 20%.) Second, the well-reported trend towards a more conservative orientation in the U.S. is evident in the increased number of self-identified conservatives. Approximately 30-35% of each sample have reported a conservative orientation since the mid-1980s. Third, the percent of moderates has remained consistently in the 25% neighborhood from about 1984. Finally, the percent responding "don't know" has been decreasing since 1990 from a high of 33% to a low of 20% in 2004.

  

 

 

 

 

Next, let's look at the relationship between party identification and ideological orientation. As mentioned in the introduction, these two factors tend to be significantly related. This relationship can be seen in the next table (below). The results for Republican Party affiliation strongly show the influence of a conservative political identity with about 75% of Republicans indicating some degree of conservative leaning. Similarly, Democratic Party affiliation tends toward a liberal orientation with 40-45% of Democrats indicating some degree of liberal leaning. Clearly, however, the association between party affiliation and ideological orientation is stronger for Republicans. Finally, Independents tend to mirror the national norms (especially for 2004) with Independents divided amongst ideological orientations in the following proportions: liberal (25%), moderate (45%) and conservative (30%).

 

 

 

 

 

Liberal? Conservative? Moderate? Psychological Type?

 

The chart above shows the significant relationship between ideology and party affiliation (and the relationship is statistically significant). But, what does it mean to be conservative or liberal?

 

Probably the most studied indicator of liberal-conservative orientation has been issue opinions related to social and economic issues as well as opinions about the role of government in society. For example, in terms of social issues, conservatives tend to be pro-life, against gay-marriage, and for the death penalty. Liberals, on the other hand, tend to be pro-choice, tolerant of gay-marriage, and against the death penalty. (Note: Some polls indicate these patterns are not always consistent.)

 

Although such positions on issue opinions help define liberal or conservative orientation, there are more fundamental factors that appear to underly such opinions. Our position is that these more fundamental factors can be expressed as differences in psychological type preferences.

 

Sensing-Intuition. Sensing and intuition are the only psychological type preferences that show any consistent relationship to political ideology (in the few studies of which we are aware). In particular, clearer preferences for Sensing associate with conservative leanings whereas clearer preferences for Intuition associate with a more liberal orientation.

 

Consider the characteristics of Sensing and Intuition types. Sensing types routinely are characterized as practical, realistic, and concerned with the here-and-now. They trust experience and facts. On the other hand, Intuiting types are characterized as imaginative, abstract, and concerned with the future. They trust hunches and possibilities.

 

Now consider this definition of conservatism from David Horowitz "...conservatism [is] an attitude about the lessons of the actual past. By contrast, the attention of progressives [is] directed toward an imagined future." Also, consider these definitions from the Merriam-Webster On-line Dictionary for Conservative and Liberal:

 

Conservative: "... tending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or institutions: TRADITIONAL."

 

Liberal: "...not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or traditional forms."

 

 

Comparing these different perspectives clearly suggests the conservative's respect for the proven institutions and practices of the "actual past" seem quite similar to the Sensing type's respect for experience and tradition. The conservative's desire for constructive and incremental change--Edmund Burke's notion of organic change--seems similar to the Sensing type's desire for change that clearly has been established from the facts of the situation and tradition. On the other hand, the liberal's preference for envisioning a new future is quite consistent with the Intuiting type's preference for imagination and creativity. The liberal's inherent need to not be bound by tradition is the Intuiting type's preference for change and possibility.

 

This perspective seems futher supported when we look at the critiques conservatives and liberals sometimes employ when discussing the other's psychology. For example, the following conservative critique of "leftism's" psychology clearly seems to involve S-N conflict about change:

 

The central proposal here may seem at first paradoxical but it is that attitude to the status quo characterizes Leftists rather than Rightists. It is proposed that it is not Rightists who are in favour of the status quo. They are in fact indifferent to it and may equally favour it or oppose it according to circumstances. Leftists, on the other hand, characteristically RESENT the status quo -- at least in the modern democracies. Whatever else the Leftist may be, the bedrock of Leftism is a strong dislike or even a hatred of the way the world is. They have a strong desire or even a need for political change, often extreme change.

 

 

The ideas expressed here, we suggest, reflect a clear example of S-N differences (and particularly SJ vs. NP differences) with respect to change. Those individuals with a preference for Intuiting indeed do have "a strong desire or even a need for" change. Does this need for change extrapolate to the political world?  We think so. Consider the author's further comments about "Rightists":

 

The Rightist, by contrast, generally has no need either for change or its converse. If anything, Rightists favour progress -- both material and social. So most Rightists are conservatives (cautious) not because of their attitude to change per se. On some occasions they may even agree with the particular policy outcomes that the Leftist claims to desire. They resist change, then, mainly when it appears incautious.

 

 

As those who have worked with psychological type and organizational change will tell you, these sentiments look very much like the Sensing type's attitude toward change in organizational life.  As the author notes, Rightists (or Sensing types) are not against change--if the change is incremental, pragmatic, "sensible." 

 

The foregoing critique is, of course, just that: a critique. As such, the opposite political orientation (type preference) is portrayed in a somewhat less than flattering light.  One of the contributions that psychological type knowledge can make in the study of politics--at least in our opinion--is to reframe what often seems as life-and-death political differences as typological differences that might be understood. For example, what might we gain if the Leftist (Intuiting type's) preference for change, variety, and the pursuit of possibilities is understood as just that rather than a "resentment" of the status quo?   

 

On another note,one interesting possibility is that the Sensing-Intuition dichotomy is involved significantly in current politics to the extent that S-N preferences relate differently to religious politics. Is it possible that the "culture wars" that are so prevalent in the press reflect the S-N differences played out in religious differences? Consider some of the following results from studies relating psychological type preferences to a variety of religious factors:



A sample of 315 adult churchgoers completed an index of conservative Christian belief together with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the MBTI. Christians who prefer sensing and thinking are more inclined to hold traditional beliefs than Christians who prefer intuition and feeling.

A sample of 315 adult church-goers completed the MBTI questionnaire assessment of psychological type together with an index of Christian agnosticism. The data demonstrate that Christians who prefer intuition rather than sensing are more tolerant of religious uncertainty. 

 

These results support more than 20 years of research suggesting that the S-N preferences play a significant role in one's religious affiliations--much as they appear to do with respect to political affiliations.  That is, Sensing preferences tend to be associated with more conservative religious beliefs and practices whereas Intuiting preferences tend to be associated with more liberal religious beliefs and practices.

 

 

Thinking-Feeling. Read the following seemingly disparate quotes and see if you find a theme:

 

"Any man who is under 30, and is not a liberal, has no heart; and any man who is over 30, and is not a conservative, has no brains." - Sir Winston Churchill

 

"Conservatives saw the savagery of 9/11 in the attacks and prepared for war; liberals saw the savagery of the 9/11 attacks and wanted to prepare indictments and offer therapy and understanding for our attackers." - Karl Rove

 

 

From a psychological type perspective, both quotes seem to comment on type preferences for Thinking and Feeling. For example, Thinking types often are stereotyped as making decisions with their "head" and Feeling types are stereotyped as making decisions with their "heart". Consider the common characteristics of the Thinking type: rational, logical, impersonal, critical, analytical. Now consider the common characteristics of the Feeling type: personal, relationships oriented, seeks harmony, sympathetic.

 

Rove's comments, of course, represent partisan Republican comments targeted to a Republican audience and thus his statements about liberals is framed for his purposes. However, such framing is not unusal to the world of psychological type and tends to reflect "type bias" or the tendency to characterize the opposite preference in a less than flattering light. Regardless of intention, Rove's comments imply conservatives manifest Thinking characteristics in that they have made the rational, logical, critical ("tough") decision and have "prepared for war." Also by implication, liberals are characterized as providing therapy and understanding--both characteristics arguably being characteristics of a Feeling preference (and thus, stereotypically characterized as "soft").

 

painting of familyBeyond type bias, the dynamics of sex-role stereotyping further camouflage the potential Thinking orientation of conservatives and the potential Feeling orientation of liberals. For example, CNBC commentator Chris Matthews' characterization of the Republican Party as the "daddy" party and the Democratic party as the "mommy" party illustrates this point. Along the same lines, University of California, Berkeley linguistics professor George Lakoff has provided an academic treatment of the topic that frames political ideology within the metaphor of the family. Within Lakoff's model conservatives envision the ideal government as one which is similar to conservative parenting practices referred to by Lakoff as the "strict father" model. In contrast, liberals envision the ideal government as one which is similar to liberal parenting practices termed "nuturing parent" by Lakoff. Recent empirical research  provides some support for Lakoff's ideas. For example, the editor of American Journal of Political Science noted about a recent article :

 

In “Competing Visions of Parental Roles and Ideological Constraint,” David C. Barker and James D. Tinnick III provide an intriguing account of how family values shape political behavior and constrain attitudes across issue areas. Using data from the 2000 American National Election Study, Barker and Tinnick find support for the idea that “nurturant” visions of parental roles engender egalitarian and humanitarian political values, while “disciplinarian” visions of proper parenting are associated with political individualism and traditionalism. Here, then, is a stimulating perspective on the red/blue “culture war” that in recent years has captivated the media and the popular imagination.

 

 

Here are some of Lakoff's descriptions of the "strict father model" that suggest a Thinking preference, particularly in terms of the impersonal, and ciritical approach to making judgements:

 

In addition to support and protection, the father's primary duty is tell his children what is right and wrong, punish them when they do wrong, and to bring them up to be self-disciplined and self-reliant. Through self-denial, the children can build strength against internal evils. In this way, he teaches his children to be self-disciplined, industrious, polite, trustworthy, and respectful of authority.

 

The strict father is restrained in showing affection and emotion overtly...

 

Life is seen as fundamentally difficult and the world as fundamentally dangerous.

 

 

Compare the above characteristics with Lakoff's description of the "nuturing parent model" that suggest a Feeling preference, particularly in terms of the more personal and sympathetic approach to making decisions:

 

The primal experience behind this model is one of being cared for and cared about, having one's desires for loving interactions met, living as happily as possible, and deriving meaning from one's community and from caring for and about others.

 

Children are taught self-discipline in the service of nurturance: to take care of themselves, to deal with existing hardships, to be responsible to others...

 

Through empathizing and interacting positively with their children, parents develop close bonds with children and teach them empathy and responsibility towards others and toward society.

 

 

Clearly the above descriptions imply a "masculine" vs. "feminine" framing. However, the possibility that sex-role stereotypes might obscure a relationship between T-F preferences and political ideology will not come as a surprise to anyone familiar with the history and construction of the MBTI. In particular, the T-F index on the MBTI is the only index that consistently has been scored using separate scoring weights for Males and Females (although the most recent Form M version does not). As might be expected, males historically have been more likely to indicate a preference for Thinking whereas females have been more likely to indicate a preference for Feeling.

 

(Note: The video at the end of this article shows a presentation by Dr. Lakoff wherein he discusses his ideas in more depth. The video runs for approximately 50 minutes.)

 

Judging-Perceiving. The last letter in your "type formula" is a J or a P (e.g., ESFJ, ISTP). This last letter indicates how you prefer to deal with the outer world. More specifically, this last letter indicates which of your preferred mental functions you typically use in the outer world.

 

If you prefer Judging (i.e., you are a J type), then you use either T or F in the outer world, depending upon your mental functions preference. For example, an INTJ uses T in the outer world. An INFJ uses F in the outer world. Thinking and Feeling thus are mental functions of Judging.

 

If you prefer Perceiving (i.e., you are a P type), then you use either S or N in the outer world, depending upon your mental functions preference. For eample, an INTP uses N in the outer world. An ISTP uses S in the outer world. Sensing and Intuiting thus are mental functions of Perceiving.

 

Because Js use a decision-making function (T or F) in the outer world, they prefer to have things decided, settled, and so on. Because Ps use a perceiving function (S or N) in the outer world, they prefer that things be more flexible, spontaneous, and dynamic.

 

Take a look at the pictures below. Which drawer is yours? If you are a "J" you probably prefer that your outer world be organized, planned, scheduled, ordered, somewhat predictable and so on--like the drawer on the left. If you are a "P" you probably prefer that your outer world be creatively chaotic, emergent, boundryless, and so on--like the drawer on the right.

 

 

Judging
Perceiving

 

 

Understanding which mental function a person uses in the outer world helps understand how that person prefers to exist in, and interact with, that outer world. Moreover, given that politics is usually considered as something that exists in the outer world, understanding J or P preferences should be helpful in understanding someone's orientation to politics.

 

Our hypothesis is that Js tend to me more conservative and Ps tend to be more liberal. Consider, e.g., the following quotes taken from Russell Kirk's presentation on conservative principles:

 

First, the conservative believes that there exists an enduring moral order....This word order signifies harmony. There are two aspects or types of order: the inner order of the soul, and the outer order of the commonwealth.

 

Second, the conservative adheres to custom, convention, and continuity....Conservatives are champions of custom, convention, and continuity because they prefer the devil they know to the devil they don’t know.

 

Fourth, conservatives are guided by their principle of prudence....Any public measure ought to be judged by its probable long-run consequences, not merely by temporary advantage or popularity. Liberals and radicals, the conservative says, are imprudent: for they dash at their objectives without giving much heed to the risk of new abuses worse than the evils they hope to sweep away.

 

 

This sampling of Kirk's words suggests J characteristics and preferences as seen in the emphasis on order, continuity, planning and so on. Moreover, the statement about liberals "dashing without...heed" might be restated in "P" language as being spontaneous.

 

The constrast in Judging and Perceiving orientations between conservatives and liberals may be evident when "Law and Order" issues are considered. In this situation, conservatives display their J tendencies when they emphasize the "Rule of Law," mandatory sentencing laws, limited appeals and so on in that these practices emphasize having things decided in a standard manner. On the other hand, liberals reflect their P tendencies when they seek judicial discretion in sentencing, extended appeals and other actions that keep the judicial process flexible and open to information to more fully inform decisions.

 

 

Conservative S, T, J vs. Liberal N, F, P?

 

The above discussion briefly suggests that conservatives may tend to prefer S, T, and J compared with liberals who may tend to prefer N, F, and P. How do these suggestions help us answer our original questions about type and party affiliation?

 

STJ vs NTP. First, let's consider the contrast between NTPs and STJs. As noted above, NTPs seem to affiliate with an Independent party identification whereas STJs tend to affiliate more with a Republican party identification. Morevover the STJs are more likely to be Democrat than Independent whereas the NTPs tend to be slightly more Republican than Democrat.

 

ISTJ





INTP



ENTP
ESTJ


The STJ affiliation with the Republican party seems reasonable given that about 75% of Republicans self-identify as conservative and S, T, and J preferences clearly imply conservative traits: order, practicality, custom, tradition, stability and so on. But, why would STJs identify more with Democrats than Independents? We believe the SJ orientation to tradition and custom influences the STJs to choose a traditional party over something somewhat undefined such as "Independent". Though independence may be a trait that conservatives admire when it comes to liberty, freedom, small government and self-reliance, we propose the SJ orientation to tradition--and thus traditional political institutions--influences this type's choice to express their political identity within the traditional two-party system.

 

Before looking at the NTP's Independent affiliation, let's look at something Isabell Myers & Mary McCaulley wrote about the SJ types and the NP types in the 1985 version of the MBTI Manual :

 

SJs seek order in their environment. They are organized, dependable, and conservative. They tend to solve problems by reliance on past experiences, and they dislike ambiguity.

 

NPs constantly seek the challenge of the new. They adapt to new possibilities as they arise. The are unconventional, independent spirits who hate to be fenced in.

 

 

In contrast to the conservative, traditional, SJ is the uncoventional and independent NP. Keep in mind our discussion above about J and P; in the case of the NP type, they prefer to experience and interact with the outer world with their Inuition. Thus, the NP attempts to enact in the outer world all manner of creative, changing possibilities. What is preferred is the new and original (and progressive?), not the conventional--and quite possibly not even the traditional, conventional two-party identification.

 

But, what about the results in out third table above which combines liberal-conservative orientation with party identification? Don't these results show that liberals and conservatives are about equally represented amongst those who self-identified as Independent in the ANES data? How can the NPs be our more liberal, non-traditionalist Independent when an almost equal number of conservative (and thus SJ types) also identify as Indepedent?

 

One possibility is that it is not SJ conservatives who self-identify as Independents; instead, the combination of Sensing and Perceiving preferences (SP types) may be the conservative Independent. The preference for Sensing again implies a trust in what is practical, realistic, and pragmatic. However, when combined with the preference for a Perceiving orientation to the outer world, we obtain a Sensing type who is likely to be more open to risking new things--to being a little more unconventional--than their SJ cousins.

 

One of the more interesting treatments of SJ and SP types in the political arena is provided by Dr. David Keirsey in his work on Presidential Temperament. Although there are distinct differences between Psychological Type theory and Temperament theory, there are those who have worked to combine the insights from both models. Consider, for example, Dr. Linda Berens' perspective on the 4 temperaments:

 

As David Keirsey developed his theory of the four temperaments, he began to display them to show the aspects the four temperaments have in common. As Linda Berens expanded on his work, she began to consistently display the Idealist (the types with N and F in their type codes) and the Guardian (those with S and J in their codes) on the top of the matrix to show that these two temperaments have in common a social attitude—they tend to take more affiliative roles and focus on interdependence. The Rational temperament (with N and T in their codes) and the Artisan (with S and P in their codes) are on the bottom of the matrix to show that they have in common a more pragmatic, do-what-it-takes attitude that focuses on autonomy and independence.

 

 

The relevant comparison here is between the "autonomy and independence" of the SP Artisan with the SJ Guardian's "focus on interdependence." (For an interesting "mapping" of the four temperaments onto the Nolan chart, see here.)

 

TJ Republicans. Our second observation about the Consulting Psychologists Press data is that the TJ types appear to indentify themselves with a Republican party affiliation more so than do the other types. As can be seen in the type table presented here, the TJ preferences include the four types found in the corners of the traditional type table.

 

ISTJ

INTJ

ISFP INFP

ESFP ENFP
ESTJ

ENTJ

These four corners often are referred to as the "hard edges" of the type table. This nickname results from the fact that each of these four types uses the Thinking function in the outer world. Thus, these types tend to engage the outer world in such a way as to plan, organize, and control events in a "hard" way via the impersonal, critical, task-focused Thinking function. In contrast to the "hard edges" types are the four types in the center of the type table. These four FP types all use the Feeling function in the inner world and are referred to as the "soft center" of the type table.

 

The TJ types also are referred to as the "executive types" and are described in the 1985 MBTI Manual as "...tough-minded, executive, analytical, and instrumental leaders." To the extent that the Republican party is the party of business, then these results make some sense. Numerous studies of managerial populations suggest a clear preference for TJ amongst these individuals. The TJ types also share numerous characteristics with the "strict father" parenting role discussed earlier, especially if we equate managerial style with parenting style. STJs in particular tend to prefer organizations that are conservatively designed with a clear emphasis on a chain of command, clear roles and responsibilities, discipline and so on.

 

But, what are we to do with the fact that we now have placed N preferences (ENTJ, INTJ) in the mostly conservative Republican category when earlier we noted that N preferences have been shown to relate to a more liberal political ideology? Three factors might help us understand this tendency. First, we need to keep in mind that there are different kinds of political conservatives, and that social and religous conservatives may be different from the business conservatives. Thus, it is possible that social conservatism may arise more from the SJ combination and business conservatism may arise more from the TJ combination.  Second, the NTJs' liberal tendencies may be moderated by the fact that the NTJs use their Intuiting function in the inner world. Third, the results from the ANES studies discussed above indicate about 5 to 10% of Republicans do self-identify as liberal and it may be the NTJs who contribute to this group.

 

INF Democrats. Our third observation about the data in Table 1 is that 49% of INFJs indicated an affiliation with Democrat. The INFPs are similar in that 38% of INFPs report an affiliation with Democrat. Moreover, both INFJs and INFPs report the lowest proportion of affiliation with Republican (22% for each type). These results contrast with the INTJs and INTPs (and TJs) who tend to affiliate with Republican but not Democrat.   

 

The INFs tendency to affiliate with Democrat may be understood, in part, by examining the characteristics associated with their NF mental functions combination. In particular, this combination can be thought of in a shorthand way as N=possibilities and F=for people. The NF types thus frequently are found in occupations which involve helping people to develop in some way. Such occupations include counseling and the clergy. The NFs also are attracted to the arts, humanities, and other occupations which give expression to the human spirit. 

       

When asked to "draw something which represents your ideal organization," NFs tend to present an organization that allows for human growth and development, that is decentralized, that has as a part of its mission to serve the greater good and so on. To the extent that one's preferences in the realm of organization also represent one's preference for a style of governing, then NFs clearly seem to express democracy in the sense of Mary Parker Follett's concept of democracy as self-creating coherence in that organization emerges from the interaction of the people who are involved.  Other NF visions of how to govern can be found in Harrison Owen's work on open-space technology and Peter Senge's work on the Learning Organization. 

 

Consider Senge's charachterization of learning organizations as

 

…organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.

 

Such language--nuture, collective aspiration, seeing the whole together--is the language of possibilities (N) for people (F).  Such language is very different from that of the TJ--and STJ particularly--where ideal government is characterized as efficient, rationale, practical, and so on.

 



INFJ
INTJ


INFP INTP








Comparing NF with ST mental functions presents fairly clear contrasts in that these mental functions groups are opposites. The more intriguing contrast in Table 1 is between the INFs and the INTs. As can be seen in the type table presented here, these types occupy the upper right quadrant of the type table.  The four types share in common preferences for I and N.  As described in the 1985 MBTI Manual, this group is referred to as the "thoughtful innovators" who "are introspective and scholarly. They are interested in knowledge for its own sake, as well as ideas, theory, and depth of understanding.  They are the least practical of the types."

 

Does the term " pointy-headed liberal" come to mind? Such would seem a natural type biased statement about this group.  But, then, what are we to make of the fact that the INTs self identify as Republican (and Independent)? Clearly, the T vs F difference plays out here in that the INFs associate with Democrat and INTs associate with Republican.  Thus, the discussion contrasting T and F preferences presented above may explain the different  party affliations. Another possibility is that NTs see the Democratic Party as incompetent and thus would rather associate with a political self-concept that is Independent rather than incompetent Democrat. We raise this possibility given both the record of the Democratic Party over the past 20 or so years combined with the NT concern with competency. However, such a notion is only a hypothesis at this point.  

 

Personality and Politics in Italy

 

Numerous factors influence one's political identity (parents, e.g.) but we are suggesting that one's normal personality perferences also influence one's politics.  And, given the assumption that Jung's psychological types are universal, then we should expect that the relationships discussed above between MBTI preferences and political orientations should be evident in other cultures. Unfortunately, we are not familiar with any studies relating MBTI preferences to political orientations beyond the few mentioned previously.

 

Fortunately, relevant research has been conducted in Italy by political psychologists. Instead of using the MBTI, however, these researchers used the Italian version of the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality.  The FFM involves five personality factors and is sometimes refered to as as the OCEAN model of personality to reflect the five factors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.  (More about the FFM can be found here.) Of significance for our investigation, research shows four of the FFM factors correlate with MBTI scores: higher scores on Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness correspond to E, N, F, and J scores on the MBTI.

 

Here is the abstract from the Italian study :

 

Abstract: Voters' political choices have presumably come to depend more on their personal preferences and less on their social characteristics in Western democracies. We examine two aspects of personality that may influence political choice, traits and personal values, using the Five Factor Model of personality traits and the Schwartz (1992) theory of basic personal values. Data from 3044 voters for the major coalitions in the Italian national election of 2001 showed that supporters of the two coalitions differed in traits and values, largely as hypothesized. Center-left voters were higher than center-right voters in the traits of friendliness and openness and lower in energy and conscientiousness. 

 

 

Translating the above FFM results into our MBTI framework produces the following:

 

"Center-Left (Liberal) voters were higher than center-right (Conservative) voters in traits of friendliness (Feeling) and openness (Intuition) and lower in energy (Extraversion) and conscientiousness (Judging)." So, similar to our discussion above S, T, and J preferences related to more conservative political orientations whereas N, F, and P preferences related more to liberal political orientations.

 

A more recent study in the U.S. provides similar results:

 

Personality measures of more than 6000 US electors on the Big Five Factors have been collected on the Web through a Web site designed to assess their personality. By means of structural equation modeling the impact of personality factors as well as of demographic variables, such as age and sex, on voting intentions on the forthcoming US presidential elections was investigated. Personality variables accounted for 16% of variance of voting intentions, while gender and age accounted for no more than 3%. High Agreeableness and Openness were predictive of intention to vote for Kerry, while all high Energy, Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability were predictive of intention to vote for Bush. Results are consistent with previous research conducted in a different country, using a different language.

 

 

Once again, the suggestion is that preferences for N and F are associated with intentions to vote for a more liberal candidate (Kerry) whereas E and J preferences are associated with intentions to vote for a more conservative candidate (Bush).  The results for Emotional Stablility (Neuroticism) are not directly comparable with the MBTI Step I framework, but are interesting.

 

Personality and Politics in U.S. College Students

 

More recent research employing the FFM futher supports a relationship between personality and political orientation.  This research focused on college students across five different samples (total N = 19,248) who completed a FFM questionnaire and self-identified their political orientation. Results from these studies stongly supported a relationship between Openness and Liberal self-identification, and moderately supported a relationship between Conscientiousness and Conservative self-identification.  Translated into "type" terms, these results again suggest Liberals tend toward N and P preferences whereas Conservatives tend toward S and J preferences.

 

Limitation 

 

Research shows that how one asks a question influences the answer one gets.  And, this maxim is true for questions related to political party affiliation.  In our case, we have been unable to determine the exact wording used in the 1998 study conducted by Consulting Psychologists Press to determine Party Affiliation.  We have twice requested a copy of the wording used in their survey, but have not received a copy.  Our discussion thus is based on the assumption that the wording is similar to what has been used in the ANES research. That said, if you have a copy of the wording of the question, please feel free to share it!

 

Concluding Comments

 

What we have tried to do here is outline some introductory ideas about how Jung's psychological types might relate to political orientations.  As mentioned, the research in the area is sparse (at least there is little published research).   We thus invite your comments, and will revise this page as ideas develop.


Professor George Lakoff on How Liberals and Conservatives Think

 

Xe-Media Software

 


 

 

 

 

Professor George Lakoff on How Liberals and Conservatives Think:

Short Version of More Recent Views

 

Xe-Media Software

 

To view a longer version of this video, go here.  





Reddit!Del.icio.us!Google!Facebook!Slashdot!Netscape!Technorati!Spurl!Furl!Blogmarks!Yahoo!Ma.gnolia!Squidoo!Free social bookmarking plugins and extensions for Joomla! websites!
Last Updated ( Monday, 22 October 2012 )
 
< Prev




2005-2012 Politicaltypes.com
Joomla Template by Joomlashack
Joomla Templates by JoomlaShack Joomla Templates
can i buy diovan in canada bupron billig kaufen purchase nitrofurantoin on line in mexico eurax weight gain where is bora bora hilton sumycin generic canada zertalin pills online in the india cytotec ships from india inderal no prrescription best place to buy sildenafila without a prescription cozaar.com lipothin drug in usa pharmacy acheter pas cher kamagra gold naltrexone implant cost best topical medication ringworm levlen buy no prescription medrol dose pack side effects fever long lasting erection pills over counter where to purchase malegra dxt can ranitidine be bought over the counter generic asacol 400 mg liquid viagra cocktail recipe how much does generic levaquin cost claravis cheap uk albendazole sold over counter buy dipyridamole online with mastercard buy tenormin with a mastercard gonorrhea treatment dosage actos canadian online overnight pharmacy norvasc 10mg buy tegretol dosage recommended order dutasterid online no prescription with a echeck hytrin fast usa cheap allegra allergic is generic viagra safe and effective novolog flexpen storage benadryl online slimex online what is the correct dosage of estrace dyazide lawsuit canada confido medicine children low cost overnight serophene para que se usa metformin 500 mg ondansetrona cheap canada pharmacy ordering augmentin on line lantus tablets online can order crestor canada generic ciprofloksacin in usa colchicina fast mexico can u buy antibiotics online levothyroxine nhs direct deltasone bonus pills ampicillin order online no prescription fasigyn online in uk buy cialis from mexico imitrex uk pharmacy where can i buy premarin mg mexican pharmacy no prescription avandamet oracea canada prescription buy generic lithium online with prescription bupropion xl maximum dosage zestril canada no prescription strattera sleeping pills quetiapinum buy without buy otomax online overnight delivery is pulmicort legal in uk generic nordette usa pharmacy what is prilosec 20 mg for buy elocom tablets hydrochlorothiazide medication hair loss avapro over the counter irbesartan generic actos 60 mg unisom tablets from buy where can i buy predisolone 5mg tablets triderm unguent can you buy depakine chrono over the counter in germany can i order septilin anafranil drugstore birth control pills diltiazem cleocin by mail order geriforte overnight alavert to buy in england femara medication uses buy ortho cyclen in india online i want to pay some biaxin buy prednisone 5mg no prescription cheap ivermectin for dogs carafate overnight provera pills reviews on cafergot where can i get some cytoxan cilest prix en pharmacie en france what bacteria does ceftin treat clindamycin lotion and pregnancy reglan online in canada seo content strategy cialis for cheaper best place to buy furosemide in india can you buy kamagra in ireland generic cheap buy levitra super active online with out prescription generic form of cipro silagra 50 reviews nordette drug in canada pharmacy ezetimibe side effects uk resources for cytotec 24 hour walmart pharmacy az buy piracetam powder where to buy amantadine without a prescription prescription estrace cream how long does remeron withdrawal last non prescription meclizine pharmacy voveran sr over the counter canada abilify aripiprazole salbumol not generic risperdal fast canada diamox and birth control pills how long does it take for elavil to work for depression top drugstore highlighters revatio results forum biaxin for purchase how to take misoprostol for abortion which uk site to buy celebrex research grade cafergot where to buy zyloprim ointment maximum dosage of viagra per day purchase zebeta on line in the uk buy augmentin 40 mail order generic benfotiamine canada trial erection packs 2 tablets online uroxatral from usa pharmacy augmentin suppliers overseas where do i furosemide in australia can i order trental online emsam no prescription needed order levitra professional without prescription research grade levitra legal buy clozaril online canada buy esperal online thru paypals buy cheap crestor online where to buy blopress with echeck buy ginette 35 online from usa best site to buy viagra sublingual olistat overnight pharmacy avalide drug oversea bausch and lomb erythromycin ophthalmic ointment usp 0.5 best place to buy trial erection packs 1 in india retin a to buy in the canada without a prescription amoxycillin india pharmacy lowest priced fluoxetine order disulphiram overnight over the counter viagra alternative canada xenical reviews from patients florida aprovel purchase vpxl online no prescription gyne lotrimin where can i buy it is viagra sublingual legal in uk cost of mail procardia buy toradol tablets us canadian pharmacy cialis professional 5mg rabeprazole maximum daily dose zyvox sales 2010 infringing indian pharmacy styplon online arimidex overnight delivery purchase himcocid lowest price buy aristocort online from canada buy antivert hong kong buy coumadin pills in the uk maximum daily dosage of viagra overnight lotrisone lexapro online prescription prescription meclizine dosage for kids buy zithromax online usa dipyridamole buy online canada herbal cialis alternative cipralex buy online us lowest priced citalopram antabuse pharmacy lanoxin birth control online mexico phone in order for lotrel no script salbumol mg sale permethrinum nitrofurantoin canada overnight delivery ditropan usa cvs prices isotretin pas cher buy lithium tablets uk what is phenergan with codeine where to buy aripiprazola in canada safely how to buy cordarone in london buy cheap revatio buy kamagra soft online reviews hydrodiuril discount voucher ampicillin no rx depakote woldwide shipping bentyl visa kamagra sale durban jelly minipress over the counter canada purchase aygestin on line in the uk discount bystolic from canada benicar spain tricor indianapolis digoxin to buy in the canada without a prescription best place buy viagra online yahoo dutas drugs for sale will lexapro go generic in 2012 benadryl pills for poison ivy amoxil india generic for synthroid drug alli weight loss capsules side effects where can i get amoxycillin pills mail order generic lanoxin leukeran without prescription pills tegretol western australia code red 7 ingredients furosemide cheap australia pharmacy order aleve on line canada curacne without prescrip delta cortef for sale philippines canadian pharmacy glucovance aricept pictures of pills how to buy cabgolin in london is generic plavix safe where to buy viagra plus with mastercard voltaren limited india can you buy prometrium over the counter cheap motrin 500 mg benfotiamine mecobalamin and pyridoxine hydrochloride capsules drugs similar to female cialis what class of drugs is baclofen in can you buy amlodipin over the counter where to buy qnexa online buy genuine metoclopramide uk mail order bentyl cheap seroquel 300mg no prescription nolvadex tamoxifen buy glucotrol xl medication order where to buy citalopram hydrobromide consult where amaryllis live blooming purchase clavamox on line in india can we trust suprax online what is levitra vardenafil hydrochloride tablets bactrim 200mg40mg dawkowanie where to get thyroxin pct combivent without subscription can you get yaz overseas pharmacy no prescription coumadin accuran australia companies only pharmacy has best price skelaxin where could i buy c ratioph without prescription where can i buy hoodia diet pills in ireland glyset spain retin a 0 025 uk online online cialis professional india lopid uk online where to buy kelnor online mexico cost of mail retino a cream movalis without script glucophage online without prescription prescription allopurinol side effects buy cialis discount anacin online canada purchase novo digoxin on line in india cardizem mg buy best price for real biaxin can you get amoxiline raloxifeno no prescription cheap terramycin pills canada pharmacies cialis tegretol side effects in children best viagra alternatives over counter speman tablets purchase on line buy elocon online us no prescription hydrodiuril lowest price a good web page to buy oxybutyninum with no script what is cilest for yagara generic wikipedia drugs ordering low dose aciphex buy sinequan xr without prescription buy oratane xr without prescription levothyroxin coupons is it illegal to order generic viagra malegra cheap female cialis over the counter india levothroid australia companies only buy cephalexin online canada sale riperdal reviews on bupropion xl lisinopril prescriptions purchase viagra on line in australia cheap cafergot buy purchase zanaflex online no prescription strattera pharmacies what is the most reputable online canadian pharmacy dramamine on line for sale no script order alli online with visa is nolvadex legal in the uk lynoral pharmacy order l tryptophan uk buy buy prednisone overnight delivery viagra tesco pharmacy buy pravachol online australia no prescription online drug for flonase chloramphenicol tablet sale where cozaar losartan potassium at1 maxaman price india what drug category is nolvadex best price citalopram what types of imitrex are there purchase zestril in uk female cialis canadian source why has fincar been discontinued adalat from canada usa buy methotrexate without prescription buy retino a cream online usa order retin a 0,025 tablets generic xenical online mexico half price amoxil buy retin a ge with paypal research grade himcocid viagra without prescription miami triamcinolone acetonide cream usp 0.1 psoriasis can you order phenergan online counter coupon for plavix from bristol myers squibb himcolin gel online maxaman nolvadex results forum requip over counter purchase brafix on line in mexico generic albuterol calcium carbonate offshore pharmacy purchasing tretinoin 0,025 online uk mail order relafen online los algodones pharmacy price list acai capsules weight loss reviews demadex medication on line fast isoniazid deleviery minocycline side effects weight gain what type of diabetes is metformin used for emoquette pills buy online lamisilate canada comprare 52 in italia where to buy plavix online india buy zithromax 5 ayurslim spain micardis pills generic tretinoin 0,05 in usa bupropion tablets via nasal insufflation generic uk paypal aygestin actonel shortage diclofenac next day where to buy accutane no prescription cheap buy colchicine online at canada pharmacy what is bentyl taken for tofranil tablets 150 mg how to get stromectol drug como usar las pastillas alli albenda without subscription costco pharmacy ceftin price propecia prescription price metronidazol generic australia desyrel next day ampicillin next day buy flovent no prescription buy adderall xr no rx wellbutrin sr noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy buy brand viagra 5 pyridium sold over counter medrol dosepak from canada with no prescription benadryl liquid shortage generic seroflo usa pharmacy is glucofage a prescription drug phexin discounts codes viagra generic price prescription clonidine generic and brand name oratane lawsuit prednisone for dogs buy online uk research grade capoten zanaflex store prescription aceon order canada levitra purchase in canada no prescription digoxin drugs interactions canadian drug company yaz without online pharmacy buy glucotrol xl yaz online order buy amantadine symmetrel buy lexapro in singapore trimox buy uk missed celebrex dose zertalin with no subscription cant buy motrin glucophage diet pills generic viagra soft gel capsule one cefixime shoppers drug mart order non generic venlor buy fertomid australia haldol buy online canada cu avana punisher for sale lamisil side effects liver order levothroid online with visa buy astelin tablets usa chloromycetin dosering vente de cytotec au quebec actonel fast usa what does deltasone treat florinef pills online in the australia skelaxin buy online us buy levothyroid online with no prescription sumycin birth control online mexico compare prices alfa flucon buy estro online from india lov cost vasotec viagra professional from usa pharmacy how to get imitrex in australia viagra online kaufen plendil tablets purchase on line order klipal codeine without rx buy skelaxin muscle relaxer tac dung phu thuoc medrol buy hydrodiuril online from india levitra or viagra which is better buy hytrin usa buy elocon cream uk buy biaxin with e check what is panax ginseng extractum used for current price zestril zoloft birth control online australia celadrin over counter uk liv 52 for purchase without a prescription canada drugs differin with prescription american clavamox permethrinum india pharmacy buy carafate boots is there a drug comparative to abilify bupropion no rx prescription zithromax chlamydia what is dipyridamole for can us citizens buy prescriptions from canada ordering low dose beconase aq gonorrhea in men symptoms and treatment kelnor pills online in the uk fucidin cream used for acne amoxycillin buy australia levitra generic no prescription online pharmacy mexico pharmacies online that sell fasigyne xenical online from india ampicillin drug study generic pills for apo clopidogrel oxybutyninum discount purchase alesse on line in usa cafergot india sale erection packs 2 usa sale viagra online prescription purchase prandin in mexico mavi umut anaokulu 2 zyloprim supplier in uk exelon italiano salbutamol without prescription medication buy ortho cyclen online buy cheap clomid online no prescription how long does it take imuran to start working benicar drugstore.com ditropan elixir recall pill rx health order avapro products norvasc sales 2008 pfizer is nitroglycerin ointment over the counter to buy sepibest comprar coumadin original en madrid zebeta from india without a transcript order desyrel roxithromycin genericon 300 mg over the counter medicine that acts as torsemide generic for cardizem sr flovent diskus 100 side effects comprar albendazole pela internet cialis pharmacy canada buy yaz online from canada betnovate scalp application ears buyers of silagra canada venlafaxina for sale buy avodart tablets buy 1000 viagra haldol pas cher best website to by viagra independent pharmacies america side effects of cialis vs viagra nordette birth control online canada generic viagra canada news what is valacyclovir hcl 1 gram used for roxithromycin drug in mexico pharmacy mentat online from uk can you only get zyprexa on prescription buy keppra 100mg online buy decadron online with no prescription himcocid lowest price online buy brand viagra online overnight delivery can you buy paroxetine in ireland where to get lexapro coupons levitra plus sale prescription order zydis from mexico without prescription movalis birth control online us best place buy drugs online buy pilex with a mastercard genuine v gel best price buy estrace pills in the uk order silagra online canada where can you buy dulcolax purim best price fluoxetina uk companies only antivert uk companies only compare prices tretinoin 0,05 zyvox 1000 mg brand carbozyne buy best price for real nolvadex benemid tablets from buy cheap acivir pills us drugs xenical online from usa viagra wanted online review septilin discount leukeran tablets 2mg zyrtec took two pills actos order online no prescription motrin generic trandate india where to purinethol generic from tadalis sx v gel online cheap trileptal usa no prescription amoxicilina pills online in the india colchicine order no prescription discount vistaril mg what does prilosec capsules look like tetracycline antibiotics for acne side effects generic aldactone valtrex cheapest motrin online in usa mometasona online from canada buy antivert 5 types of illegal drugs used in sports methotrexate 10 mg week voltaren pills generic non generic protonix tindamax legal us cost of zoloft prescription in diclofenac pills original tizanidinum online quando si usa haldol obagi tretinoin .05 reviews aleve weight gain minomycin suppositories buy cheap amoxil per pill how to buy prinivil in canada what is vermox drugs colchicine medication side effects buy prednisona online from india canadian retino a cream compare prices cozaar vagifem online in usa carafate next day delivery omnicef online from usa cefadroxil from canada with no prescription vermox mg uk buy amoxil overseas buy speman online from canada where do i lantus in canada caprysin drug class atarax no prescription needed uk order plus in pharmacy online viagra zoloft from canada tizanidinum with paypal payment tegretol on line in the mexico pyridium shoppers drug mart buy pamelor with mastercard purchase acai online no prescription buy biaxin 80 mg online oder mg tablets of proscar all types proscar pills phenergan with codeine cost can you buy diarex over the counter in germany cymbalta birth control online india buy rumalaya gel online amazon u94 from pharmacia and upjohn mexico acai berry medication interactions generic pills for viagra sublingual side effects of diovan hct 80 quickest bupropion hydrochloride german remedies ltd worli como comprar yagara buying rocaltrol in manchester tadacip online sales mail order trileptal lasilix canada drug store order clavamox overnight claritin reviews for men comprar lady era pela internet bactrim ds order online super active baby at 36 weeks wellbutrin xl side effects libido furosemide to buy from europe retin a 0,05 canada no prescription viagra suppositories buy cost of mail serophene buy kamagra soft online cheap order female cialis medication by mail fasigyn canada overnight delivery carafate pharmacy coupons accutane online pharmacy uk best place to buy accutane online prescription lisinopril hydrochlorothiazide generic cheapest amantadine best place to buy cardizem in usa can you get maxaman purchase kamagra oral jelly in us buy exelon from india where do i imitrex in uk how to buy amlodipinbesilat order cleocin gel online no prescription with a echeck tamoxifen citrate order zithromax suspension for children can i get xenical on prescription online microzide with no prescription aldactone refill pack glucofage without rx does benadryl make you sleepy the next day lexapro perth australia ordering prescription drugs online canada naprosyn price india pharmacies amitriptyline online no prescription needed buy cabgolin online thru paypals stieva a mexico no prescription fincar on the internet levitra cheap us pharmacy zyvox prices metformin over the counter drugs purchase aviane 28 on line in uk levitra generico best purim prices lipothin drug sildenafil citrate tablets manufacturers india purchase generic stieva a furosemide canada sale haldol tablets for sale best price for real thyrohormone lamisil medication information asacol price india online pharmacy uk synthroid brand name seroquel online buy raloxifeno pills in the canada accutane initial breakout 60 mg buy seasonique tablets uk side effects of detrol medication allegra drugstore tetracycline tablets rosacea lopressor from canada without rx how much does a prescription of metformin cost buy propecia no prescription cheap viagra sublingual australia brand caffeine ergotamine buy where do i cialis super active in australia advair diskus online without rx benadryl pills for itchy skin buy dilantin tablets australia tricor purchase in canada no prescription buy metronidazol low cheap price famvir doses torsemide online legally med cab viagra professional does propecia really work forum non prescription prilosec ordering avapro mexico purchasing amlodipinbesilat online original imitrex online pulmicort buy usa the chepest risperdal prescription without aprovel usa can you get high off of snorting zoloft canada drugs tegretol with prescription canadian pharmacy cytoxan can you buy amantadine online retin a lowest price voveran sr without prescription canada testosterone replacement and cialis dilantin pills online in the india nolvadex pct dosage length order baclofen online without rx viagra sublingual over the counter drugs femara generic launch zyban canada drugs buy shuddha guggulu pills in the us buy viagra discreetly citalopram dose pack no prescription fluoxetine generic effectiveness buy viagra plus paypal accepted stieva a cream buy online altace over the counter india combivent online ordering trileptal usa sale buy curacne mg online for safe bupron sr no prescription altace generic release date ordering voveran sr uk coming off cipralex 20mg cloridrato de ciprofloxacino dexametasona bula order clozaril online no prescription with a visa bisoprololi fumaras buy online ireland met 4 mexican pharmacy qsymia prescription cost buy diabecon tablets online etodolac mexico pharmacy risperdal tablets dose elocom mg no prescription arimidex usa no prescription buy procardia with a mastercard lynoral doctors online how long does it take for zofran to work for morning sickness retin a gel 0,1 on line in the uk football stats 2012 13 how long does it take for dramamine to kick in demadex online forum waheed alli twitter med cab micardis anxiety test sport suppliers of sumycin in us united support solutions cedar grove nj adalat over counter uk bayer yasmin discount nimotop coupon code how to get unisom in australia buy azitromicina in ireland pfizer viagra online without prescription vasotec pills online in the usa online buy cheap allegra mail order generic epivir hbv emsam over counter albuterol order by phone himplasia online in us buy mentax online from canada antivert over counter brand amoxil delivery london genuine albenza best price long term side effects of nordette apo clopidogrel to buy in the uk without a prescription cafergot birth control online india prilosec on line in the mexico can i make astelin can norvasc tablets be split reviews on xenical doksazosin lek online canada triamterene legal in england buy curacne online levitra professional medication side effects does generic viagra work reviews forum free samples order gasex online uk flagyl forte dosage viagra professional uk companies only community pharmacy jobs northern ireland purchase levothroid on line in australia buy confidom women condom sertralina 50mg corta efeito anticoncepcional original brafix online percocet effects on fetus over the counter amaryl online buy exelon stock lov cost colchicine order oristal on line mexico cefixime birth control online canada brand name otomax online diflucan 1 australia cheap cymbalta uk buy levlen without rx nizagara mexico pharmacy cialis expiration date is kamagranow.co.uk genuine disulfiramum to buy in england seasonique not generic combivent spray onde comprar online hydrochlorot ivax no prescription oxybutyninum pills online in the usa ordering low dose dilantin can you only get aspirin on prescription zocor heart pro discontinued tadalafil cialis side effects buy exelon online no prescription united states generic vs brand name levitra doxycycline hyclate 100 mg for dogs where do i serpina in usa ordering adalat india tadalafil tablets usp monograph sinequan to buy from europe arzomicin buy online us cialis professional prices usa safe buy fasigyn online where to buy levothyroid drugs online phexin legal us doxazosin order on web does starlix have generic how much is tindamax tablets reviews on metronidazole buy dramamine online amazon baridium generic reviews how often to use zovirax cream tindamax women buy benicar where can i buy it indian pharmacy moduretic renagel price us apo clopidogrel shoppers drug mart comprar metrogel original purchase hydrea online billig serevent online kaufen seroflo without prescription danazol for breast pain where can i get voveran sr from genuine erythromycin 100mg can buy albenda online discount oestrogel of canada purchase generic ciplox clonidine adhd dosage augmentin generic usa diclofenac spain over counter indocin mg uk order accutane 20mg coupon bystolic discount medications best site get microzide where is it safe to buy viagra online buy yaz usa advair diskus buy india meclizine buy online uk anafranil side effects weight gain buy kamagra 100mg oral jelly australia french pomegranate juice cordial is there a drug comparative to isoniazid can you buy vantin over the counter in germany orlistato uk next day delivery side effects of fexofenadine hci discount drugstore makeup zanaflex on line in the india olanzapine where can i buy i pill ventolin website metoclopramide buy online us cost effectiveness aspirin secondary prevention trandate with prescription cheap nolvadex 20mg zyprexa overdose a comprehensive view lansoprazole tablets buy buy eurax online uk no prescription antabuse pills online in the canada universal online pharmacy review biaxin on line where to buy tamoxifen pharmacy order retin a 0,025 online no prescription with a echeck can you order sarafem prilosec 10mg tablets ventolin noprescrition needed uk online pharmacy drugs similar to amantadine generic casodex in usa canadian pharmacy cialis 5 mg pharmacy mexico paroxetine zanaflex drug in mexico pharmacy there generic levaquin medicine xanax effects erowid exelon auto sales reviews very cheap crestor order viagra in uk what drug category is dramamine cheap brand name seroquel where do i zetia in usa how to buy estradiol valerate buy doxycycline hyclate 100mg acne canada orlistar tablets online cost of flucazole without insurance cialis soft birth control online mexico brand amoxil drug in canada pharmacy dapoxetine ordering online pharmacy does alli diet pill work reviews what does ginseng do buy tadalis sx 20 uk version of kamagra free prilosec coupons printable order colchicina online order vermox on line mexico janumet over the counter how to by himplasia online nexium store generic lowest diclofenac gel legal us original elocon online generic advair diskus fluticasone salmeterol januvia generic name acivir pills weight gain is there a generic available for plavix why has celexa been discontinued capoten from canada with no prescription discount endep best pharmacies in tijuana where can i buy probalan buy neurontin in ireland how long does allegra 180 last prednisone side effects in dogs medrol online in uk best drugstore foundation primer 2012 how often to take claritin 10 mg acheter pas cher haldol alli online in us cost of methotrexate in canada what does diclofenac sodium feel like puedo comprar bactrim sin receta better than delta cortef ivenox max dose floxin mg uk mexican pharmacy no prescription remeron buy zyvox mg generic viagra mastercard accepted buy meclizine online from canada minocin 20mg tab purchase bactrim in canada zyrtec coupons printable july 2012 can i order drugs from mexico tadapox buy mexico doxycycline manufacturer usa erythromycin spain over counter acticin online store metoclopramide buy australia zyrtec pill shortage luvox canada head office where to get lipitor pct nordette doctors online albuterol inhaler generic brand niacin and simvastatin interactions lavitra20mg cvs what is zertalin can you buy acivir pills mg pharmacy diarex usa can order relafen canada over the counter drugs similar to trandate buy baridium online with no prescription buy erection packs 2 with no script buy antabuse in india online ventolin dose what is the drug classification for imitrex best online pharmacy generic glucophage aciphex coupon viagra sildenafil citrate kaufen order levothyroxin online noroxin reviews for men buy actoplus tablets india buyers of minomycin canada meclizine available over the counter atacand diovan equivalent dose order duphalac online without rx buy aleve mg online buy levothroid with visa bupron sr online sales side effects of lisinopril medication purchase hytrin on line in australia erythromycin pharmacies artane credit union opening times order arava online with visa atacand 8 mg 28 tablet accuran suppositories buy what is ramipril 5mg ordering cialis super active kaufen viagra hytrin mail order india calcium carbonate price malaysia digoxin perth australia brand aripiprazola buy how to buy clincin in london can i order amantadine online pharmacy buy drugs thyroxin seroquel dosage children buy carbozyne without rx to buy lisinopril in uk curacne mg tablet ortho cyclen dose low cost actos pioglitazone canadian pharmacy albenda no prescription needed prometrium prescription only apcalis sx online pay paypal amlodipin prices cvs cvs discount prescriptions nitrofurantoin syrup india side effects of zofran in toddlers pediatric dose of bactrim ds discount revatio of canada adalat online pharmacy shipped to canada terramycin salep indian pharmacy colchicine synthroid and weight loss pills buy oxytrol 200 thyroxin cheap uk pharmacy decadron dosage im where can i get avodart pills permethrinum drug class buy generic advair diskus online fluticasone buy vermox in india online noprecriptionneedcanandianpharmacy glucovance cheapest rate mexican pharmacy no prescription imuran order disulfiramum on line usa use retino a cream 0,05 coupon online lisinopril hydrochlorothiazide 20 12.5 mg per tablet dostinex india companies only flagyl purchase can you order beconase aq patient spray alavert coupons printable pharmacies in actoplus met generic canadian drug company c ratioph phone in order for noroxin what is misoprost tablets irbesartan teva 300 mg filmtabletta lamisil boots pharmacy levitra 10 mg ohne rezept how to order premarin where can i buy nexium without a prescription discount diclofenac gel from usa betnovate australia price purchase tadalis on line in india order propecia internet where do i lopressor in canada bactrim.com cyklokapron tablets dosage minomycin buy without baby aspirin ttc what does mobic buying zyprexa from canada no prescription legal viagra thailand pastillas redustat sirven gasex 2012 bali topamax online in usa online benzac purchase buy viagra professional online no prescription l tryptophan online orders what does generic baclofen look like where to buy oratane drugs online what is zestoretic buy paroxetine new zealand online natural erection pills over the counter buy generic fucidin online no prescription levlen online prescription how to get finpecia drug can i get bystolic what is hyaluronic acid in skin care janumet maximum dosage cheap aricept sale uk isoptin no prescription fedex ups rhinocort aqua india healthy diet for male athlete canada proscar tablets online proventil cheap uk pharmacy predalone prices western drug cabaser nordette pharmacy order how to use diamox for altitude sickness order tretinoin 0,05 on line india protonix online overnight shipping reviews on fosamax ordering carafate buy levitra professional overseas levitra super active mexico companies only demadex for sale buy oxybutyninum online australia no prescription blue pill red pill meme original geriforte online ginseng tablets for purchase where purchase nizagara confido mg india where can i buy thyrox online without a prescription erythromycin for dogs use where to buy ovral l lexapro medicine facts 911 mtabs thyroxine online anafranil without prescription medication 222 pills canada drugs to buy retin a ge in uk cheap mentax 100 mg levothyroxine sodium and alcohol brand name keppra online himcocid birth control online canada aloprim pricing is bupropion available in canada celapram where to buy in canada lipitor online legally purchase premarin on line in uk endep 10mg for sleep buy doxi 1 online from canada order female cialis from india without prescription lamisil online pharmacy uk 365 pills website azithromycin z pack dose doctor i pill benzac website where to buy levitra online no prescription fda purchase aldactone in australia canada pharmacy viagra no prescription sildenafil citrate refills buy clincin online flexisyn suppliers overseas actoplus reviews for men online generic diovan purchase voveran sr in canada buy silagra 20 is it safe to order avodart canadian generic alli medication information ortho cyclen canada no prescription beta val uses medication purchase accutane 1mg online prescription solutions provider login order remeron overnight will trileptal cause weight gain how to buy serpina in canada accuran online pharmacies with out prescription aviane 28 costco can i order prednisolone online zertalin where can i buy it valaciclovir online pharmacy shipped to canada super discount pharmacy online reviews buy tindamax online usa buy depakote with a mastercard usa buy cardura without prescription generic asacol for sale on line what does betnovate cream cure elavil refill pack priligy pharmacy mail order nexium supplier in uk lamisil generic vs brand zyrtec max dose how long do i have to take fosamax buy retino a cream 0,05 singapore where to buy levitra plus online mexico order lotrel on line india singulair medication side effects furosemide canada cost what is keflex made out of viagra pharmacy us best over counter viagra substitute low cost avalide online without oregon state parks diltiazem online bestellen generic diovan for sale on line ciprofloksacin on line in the india american effexor xr generic levitra plus india buy eurax inhaler canada ephedraxin discounts codes buy actos overseas maximum safe dosage of lasix risperdal buy mexico strattera india sale levaquin discount coupon indian generics online aricept rendezvous allegra hotel adelaide australia lamisilate cheap india pharmacy side effects of exelon pill zestoretic buy uk order antibus online do i need a prescription for sustiva what is atorlip 20 for florida quetiapinum tegretol on line purchase buy vistaril online without a prescription hyaluronic acid fillers for sale cheapest drug synthroid buy astelin boots pharmacy prinivil costco what does lipothin is it safe to order yagara buy ginseng visa buy zanaflex without a prescription from canadian pharmacy costco pharmacy xalatan price buy arimidex online canada no prescription cheap altace 2.5 mg is cymbalta better than zoloft buy c ratioph usa zentel online legally buy percocet tablets mexico paroxetine tablets online ampicillin uk pharmacy rabeprazole side effects depression buy citalopram without a script remedio tolrest cloridrato de sertralina purchase propranolol online no prescription albenza on line for sale no script kamagra soft discount voucher prescription medicine for dogs with diarrhea can i get pregnant with femara online zentel purchase where to buy cheap generic lantus uk online pharmacy paypal what is aricept tablets best site for levitra metocarbamol from uk fasigyn perth australia order olanzapine on line uk triamterene pills online in the usa cheapest carvedilolo tablets uk how to use flovent with aerochamber what is an example of alliteration in beowulf en que casos se usa aciclovir canadian pharmacy cheap amoxil buy paroxetine tablets us cheapest place to buy propecia 1 mg xenical for sale in canada canadian pharmacy levitra professional generic accuran usa ashwagandha churna divya pharmacy where can i get glucotrol xl cost of mail tenormin american tretinoin where to buy medrol without a prescription buy rythmol sr online with no prescription calcio cipro wikipedia spironolactone side effects women 1.25mg finasteride every other day bystolic over the couter where to buy generic cipro protonix reviews side effects hyzaar cost comparison silagra express canada bupron mg uk genuine indocin 100mg what does estro how to get risperdal caprysin to buy from europe lotrisone cheap us pharmacy acquisto citalopram sicuro online is canadian healthcare pharmacy legitimate uk version of amoxil haridra online now discount ordering lasix costo de cytotec en colombia is there an over the counter medicine for protonix paxil express canada buy metronidazole capsules where can i buy cytotec in singapore xenical 120 omline pharmacy buy drugs benadryl retin a gel 0,1 online without prescription is generic tizanidina effective what is a good over the counter medication for anxiety cialis soft online shipping rhinocort perth australia long term side effects of nitrofurantoin diprolene pills online in the australia what is generic viagra authentic what is tadalafil generic neo medrol acne lotion for sale prescription required med cab proventil online hyzaar india dosis de cicloferon pastillas buy quibron t online usa duetact price compare buying finast using paypal zyban mg usa what is the generic for pletal non prescription medicines blopress drugs for sale what does the word aleve mean all types alesse pills buy famvir inhaler canada how to take lotrisone walgreens drugstore acquisition i pill neurontin website innopran xl discount medications what is diovan valsartan tablets for canadian ondansetrona email 1 and 1 safe brand cialis buy no prescription micardis what is biaxin xl 500mg used for etabus legal in england priligy to purchase without a prescription alchemist indian viagra buy tamoxifen australia nolvadex atrovent generic cheap costs diflucan no prrescription what is cardizem drugs where do i capoten in canada viagra side effects nhs what is ventolin hfa sepibest mexico companies only best online pharmacy generic plendil pharmacies discount order abana buy cheap carafate zydis prescription only feldene order online strattera online overnight vasotec usa cvs prices what is maxalt 10 mg can you buy cleocin online medrol sublingual dosage anafranil italiano geriforte generic india how to get cardizem in australia ed medicine overnight gpchealth com reviews aristocort with no subscription vytorin india discount nootropil from usa safe roaccutan no precription no prescription glucotrol generic version ortho tri cyclen where can i buy levitra online without a prescription where can i purchase celebrex does wellbutrin help with sexual side effects of lexapro zenegra discount voucher metformin buy online us my canadian passport expired 3 years ago bentyl thailand grifulvin v with paypal payment acquistare zofran in italia what is isoniazid for cymbalta indications in canada buy fosamax online from usa sinequan cheap uk fluconazol from australia furosemide medication dogs order aloprim overnight generic valtrex side effects pill rx health fluss 40 products order prednisolone online no prescription with a visa oxybutynin generic for ditropan buy cleocin online no prescription uk names of pills that can get you high actos for purchase without a prescription cheap generic desyrel original nymphomax online viramune to buy in england can you get high off of amitriptyline hydrochloride 10mg betoptic doctors online nexium online from usa where to buy fluticanose drugs online cheap genuine rumalaya forte online buy generic cefixime online order toradol on line canada ordering antivert mexico nizoral 2 shampoo india famvir over counter australia moduretic generic wikipedia drugs buy metocarbamol online pharmacy the ambien walrus kamagra soft cheap buy antara without rx oracea express canada arjuna mg mexico does ginseng interfere with birth control pills legal buy lithium online canada what is diovan tablets suppliers of ginette 35 in us generic ortho tri cyclen birth control cheapest plendil to buy buy albendazole in india online lantus without a prescription from india get renova las vegas paxil ordering online pharmacy buy carvedilolo online mexico no prescription dutas pills online in the india over the counter raloxifeno eurax india western drug lotrisone global generic pharmacy review pharmacies cheap combivent inhaler buy lipitor no prescription fast delivery buy finasteride for hair loss klipal codeine without a prescription from australia keppra medication mechanism action parlodel canada companies only buy halo shampoo online india canadian obelit atomoxetin over the counter uk mail order confido best price for real rythmol sr arava shopping trental low dose birth control all types imuran pills meridia 15 avalide direct pharmacy safe celapram no precription brand viagra online store generic nimotop us pain meds no rx red pill blue pill philosophy bactroban no prrescription buy viramune 40 can you only get viagra super active on prescription indinavir woldwide shipping how to order purim rumalaya forte prescription coupon prilosec non perscription countries brand name zoloft online where can i get levlen buy speman online with mastercard celebrex delivery london can you take hydrodiuril daily where can i get imitrex from buy compazine prochlorperazine minocycline medication information history of medicine and allied sciences parlodel italiano why is there a shortage of benadryl purchase aygestin in canada cheapest allopurinol artane where can i buy it what is haldol decanoate used for medicine called neurontin can buy neurontin online where to buy hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg where to get naprosyn how to by sominex online oder mg tablets of lozol how to discontinue use of zoloft over counter aceon novo digoxin cheap uk pharmacy atomoxetin generic name buy dutas 40 get shatavari legal alfa flucon without a prescription from india simvastatina to buy in the canada without a prescription vytorin sale post cycle therapy zithromax list of top 50 m.pharmacy colleges in india eurax hydrocortisone cream pregnancy cleocin lowest price eyeglasses without prescriptions elimite cream for scabies plavix 100mg cheap med cab kytril purchase live honey bees can you take motrin daily viagra professional drugstore buy lantus online from uk alphagan tablets 150 mg methotrexate missed dose side effects medrol direct pharmacy how to order lamictal online what is obelit made of where can i get eldepryl pills mail order minocin discount coupon for plavix toprol mg buy cialis wikipedia portugues buying viagra over the counter at boots canadian buy rumalaya uk buy salbutamol online mexico no prescription diclofenac side effects long term use order nootropil from australia without prescription we are young lyrics mika ordering orlistatum canada buy roaccutan online no prescription uk benicar without a prescription best price for diovan should i take 50 or 100 mg viagra dulcolax 50mg tablets non prescription venlor cozaar tablets from buy indocin without where to buy diamox with amex thyrohormone online pay paypal canadian zetia tablet acai spain over counter buy cozaar fast shipping ultra low dose endep mirapex birth control online canada buy generic doxi 1 online no prescription buy canada no prescription for speman buy bupron sr tablets online what is naprosyn made of what allergies does zyrtec treat where do i geriforte in uk suprax mexico no prescription mevacor generico italiano ponstel brand positioning panmycin from usa pharmacy where to buy albenda drugs online roxithromycin online order minocycline buy online mexico zovirax mexico companies only canada pharmacies online that sell janumet zyvox without up generic can you order prednisolone online what is metoclopramide for how to buy clomid without rx meclizine sale generic levothyroxin us astelin new zealand can you get chlamydia in your mouth or throat side effects of erythromycin medicine prednisone for sale australia dapoxetine sold over counter erection packs 2 online usa no prescription over the counter medicine depakote tretinoin 0,025 side effects long term use drugs controller general of india new delhi buy oxybutyninum online no prescription us where to buy femara buy now pay later viagra where could i buy actoplus without prescription brand name metformin online acheter valtrex canada what is mentax for half price ortho cyclen gabapentin high dose meclizine sold in canada cleocin canada no prescription risperdal sales 2012 buying sinequan using paypal oestrogel mg india norco pills for sale dog medicine online australia discount suppliers of albenza in us drugs similar to frumil buy unisom online sleeping aid what drug class is combivent order buy online generic amitriptyline order viagra professional online canada bactrim without prescriptions claritin d shortage donde puedo comprar elavil where to buy carvedilolo mg purchase nexium in mexico buy online rosuvastatin generic coupon code for escrow pharmacy ordering retin a canada buy doxycycline low cheap price diclofenac purchase online eurax usa pharmacy side effects of flagyl on children didronel for daily use generic brand suprax india urispas price apo clopidogrel medicine children acai without a prescription buy amlodipin online thru paypals buy aviane 28 online from mexico how to take torsemide drug market order tricor over the counter metronidazole or tinidazole comprar purim original en madrid deltasone no prescription compare prices how old can you be to buy viagra does accutane cause birth defects years later ordering shallaki mexico acivir pills phone orders doksazosin lek from mexico azurette without a perscription canadian drug company valtrex floxin drug class buy seroflo online cheap famvir tablets us online methotrexate mail order cheapest drug effexor xr terramycin shelf life cheap minipress pills buy erexor new zealand online maximum dosage of mobic prednisolone medication for cats prescription drug cardura xl can you buy viagra in bali canadian pharmacy spam emails where to buy benadryl online mexico ordering low dose wellbutrin sr purchase cleocin online buy femcare uk buy cheap dutas pills cheap lantus where is merlin filmed 2012 does arimidex make you gain weight zovirax 800mg pills for sale buy seroquel online with visa beat way to order hyzaar amitriptyline over the counter herbal innopran lowest price buy viagra in canada what is advair diskus mg used to treat online erexin v with no prescription betnovate n generic name where purchase voltaren suhagra discount medications order roxithromycin no rx canadian pharmacy can you order generic serevent inhaler benzac ships from india ovral l australia pharmacy prilosec usa today capoten suppositories buy buy cardura tablets uk actoplus met medication minocin without insurance buy crestor generic discount dipyridamole of canada revatio sale viagra discount where can i get hydrea we heart it login flonase how long does it take for levitra to work extendaquin spain cheap frusemide pills use salvent coupon online hydrodiuril max dose best drugstore makeup for pale skin non prescription clonidine pharmacy toprol xl alternative medicine cymbalta coupons 2013 buy nitroglycerin tablets mexico legal online claritin order acivir pills rx online drug for mevacor what is pravachol drugs antivert canada companies only prednisolone pct buy buy delta cortef inhaler canada buy confido in singapore can viagra be be taken with z pack use levitra professional coupon online online forum prescription buy benadryl acai to buy in england order duphalac on line uk levothyroxin tablets from buy buy online phexin generic celexa overdose trazodone paypal discount levitra super active from canada risperdal prescription coupons buy mevacor online ireland nitrofurantoin macro generic how much does imuran cost in canada elocom over counter buy cialis soft hong kong half price malegra dxt zestril for sale usa capoten order ramipril 10 mg price retin a generic mexico lasilix uk no prescription diovan tablets 40mg eldepryl over counter zantac cvs pharmacy best price nexium 40mg casodex tablets side effects cheap xenical australia diakof reviews buy disulphiram online no prescription canada buy xenical capsules strattera canada buy where to buy azurette with echeck acheter pas cher nizagara rel viagra bactrim rxlist plendil drug in germany pharmacy purchase alfa flucon on line in mexico order digoxin lanoxin generic torsemide with prescription phenergan canada pharmacy how to import albendazole where to buy cheap generic zoloft acheter pas cher dilantin ramicomp 5 25 buy periactin online europe levitra tablets us online discount atomoxetin from canada naprosyn birth control online australia benadryl ultra tabs procardia discounts codes cheapest place to buy vantin best price zyvox advanced acai price cheap genuine clozaril online lantus without a prescription from uk prograf medicine children paroxetine cost walmart buy mebendazole overnight shipping oracea costco levitra without a prescription from australia canadian drug company bupropionum can order phexin canada buy diprosone tablets us best online pharmacy generic atacand isoniazid and rifampicin combination eldepryl ordering online pharmacy altace online usa safe to buy generic stediril from uk retino a cream 0,025 online from usa order lamisilate from india without prescription mobic online order cheap advair overnight pharmacy anastrozolo next day delivery revia from china order pulmicort online without rx maxalt buy online us clomid uk online pharmacy maxaman usa no prescription buy revatio online canada no prescription diflucan online from uk seasonique pills sweat micardis for purchase without a prescription erection packs 3 discount no prescription web prescriptions assistance needymeds cefadroxil roche precio argentina can we trust albendazole online where to get motrin 800 nitroglycerin explosive reaction panmycin online canada fast delivery buy liquid kamagra online buy dyazide online no prescription usa order mometasona online canada tadalis sx online shipping can you take seroquel to get high buy arimidex online to australia purchase keftab in usa genuine feldene 100mg where to buy lopressor without a prescription zovirax ointment for eyes what drug category is celebrex protonix online ordering aygestin paypal apple discount drugs clinton tn buy aprovel uk liquid strattera review suppliers of flagyl in us generic saw palmetto usa pharmacy buy cholestoplex in india online retin a gel 0,1 discount no prescription